بررسی اثرات بهینه‌سازی کاربری اراضی بر برخی خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک و شاخص فرسایش‌ پذیری آن در مراتع آوارد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد مرتعداری، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه مرتع‌داری، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

3 دانش آموخته کارشناسی مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

چکیده

تبدیل جنگل‌ها و مراتع به اراضی کشاورزی، امروزه در سطح دنیا نگرانی‌های زیادی را در زمینه تخریب خاک، محیط زیست و تغییر اقلیم جهانی پدید آورده است. مطالعه تغییرات خصوصیات خاک در اثر تغییر کاربری اراضی، ضروری است و جهت شناخت مدیریت‌های پایدار در هر منطقه به‌منظور جلوگیری از تخریب خاک، ایجاد و تثبیت تولید پایدار و نیز اهداف زیست محیطی می‌تواند راه‌حل مفیدی ‌باشد.  در دهه‌های گذشته بخش‌های وسیعی از مراتع آوارد به اراضی کشاورزی تبدیل شده‌اند و در سال‌های اخیر، احداث باغ‌های مثمر در این اراضی زراعی کم بازده مطرح گردیده است. این تحقیق به‌منظور بررسی اثرات تغییر کاربری اراضی بر برخی خصوصیات فیزیکی - شیمیایی خاک در منطقه آوارد انجام شد. بعد از شناسایی منطقه از طریق پیمایش صحرایی و با استفاده از دستگاه GPS، 3 نمونه‌ مرکب خاک از عمق 30-0 سانتی‌متر هر تیمار (مرتع، زراعت غلات ، زراعت حبوبات، باغ گردو و باغ گردو- سیب ) برداشت شد و جهت تعیین برخی خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک شامل: بافت خاک، پایداری خاکدانه‌ها، جرم مخصوص ظاهری، درصد تخلخل کل،کربن آلی، اسیدیته و هدایت الکتریکی به آزمایشگاه خاک‌شناسی منتقل شد. شاخص فرسایش‌پذیری خاک نیزبا استفاده از رابطه نسبت رس اصلاح شده، محاسبه شد. به‌منظور تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها از روش تجزیه واریانس یک‌طرفه (ANOVA) استفاده گردید. سپس به‌منظور مقایسه میانگین‌ها از آزمون توکی در سطح معنی‌داری 5 درصد استفاده شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها نشان داد که احداث باغ‌های مثمر در اراضی زراعی کم بازده، بر پایداری خاکدانه‌ها و هدایت الکتریکی خاک اثر مثبت معنی‌داری(05/0P<) نهاده است، اما بر سایر خصوصیات از جمله کربن آلی خاک اثر معنی‌داری نگذاشته است(05/0P>). با توجه به نتایج به‌دست آمده، می‌توان چنین نتیجه‌گیری نمود که حفظ مراتع طبیعی مناسب‌ترین کاربری اراضی در منطقه مورد مطالعه می‌باشد. در اراضی زراعی کم بازده منطقه مورد مطالعه نیز، احداث باغ‌های مثمر پیشنهاد می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

land use optimization on some physical and chemical properties of soil and its erodibility index in Avard rangelands

نویسندگان [English]

  • zahra jafari 1
  • Hamid Niknahad gharmakher 2
  • maryam ghasemi 3
  • isa jafari 1
چکیده [English]

Todays, conversion of forests and rangelands to croplands has made concern about soil and environmental degradation and global climate change. Knowledge of the effects of land use change on soil properties is necessary and can be a solution for identifying sustainable managements in any region in order to prevent soil degradation and reach to sustainable production and environmental purposes, either. In the past decades, large part of Avard rangelands has been converted to croplands. In recent years, gardening on these low efficiency agricultural lands has been suggested. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of gardening on some soil physical and chemical properties compared with rangeland and cropland in Avard region. At first, the study area was identified by field survey and then, three composite soil samples were obtained from depth of 0-30 cm of key area of each treatment (rangeland, walnut Garden, walnut – apple garden, cereal farm, and frijol farm). Some soil physical and chemical properties including texture, aggregate stability, bulk density and porosity, organic carbon, pH, and electrical conductivity were measured in laboratory and soil erodibility index was calculated by using the modified clay ratio relation. Data analysis was performed by SPSS.16.0 software and one way analysis of variance. In order to compare the means of studied parameters, tukey test at a significance level of 5% was applied. The results demonstrated that soil aggregate stability and electrical conductivity were significantly  improved (P<0.5) as a result of gardening on the low efficiency agricultural lands, but other soil properties such as soil organic carbon were not significantly improved (P>0.5). According to the results, it can be concluded that the best land use in the study area is natural rangelands. Establishment of orchards in the low efficiency arable lands of the study area is recommended, either.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Land use change
  • soil
  • cultivation
  • Orchard
  • rangeland
  • Hezarjerib Behshahr

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