بررسی اثرات قرق بر برخی خصوصیات، فرسایش‌ پذیری و ترسیب کربن خاک (مطالعه موردی: مراتع بزداغی- خراسان شمالی)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مرتعداری، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

چکیده

با توجه به گسترش کاربرد قرق به‌منظور اصلاح مراتع و ترسیب کربن، بررسی اثرات آن بر خصوصیات خاک و محاسبه ارزش اقتصادی کربن ترسیب‌یافته حایز اهمیت است. هدف از مطالعه حاضر، بررسی تغییرات برخی خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک در نتیجه اعمال قرق در مقایسه با چرای آزاد و نیز، بررسی اثرات قرق بر میزان ترسیب کربن خاک و محاسبه ارزش اقتصادی آن در منطقه بزداغی استان خراسان شمالی می‌باشد. به‌این منظور، 15 نمونه خاک به‌صورت تصادفی – سیستماتیک، از عمق 15-0 سانتیمتری و درطول 3 ترانسکت به طول 500 متر و به فاصله 200 متر از یکدیگر در هر منطقه (قرق و تحت چرا) برداشت شد. در آزمایشگاه، برخی خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک شامل  بافت، جرم مخصوص ظاهری، درصد تخلخل، درصد رطوبت اشباع، اسیدیته، هدایت الکتریکی، درصد کربن آلی، ازت کل، میزان ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی، سدیم، پتاسیم ، کلسیم، و منیزیم تبادلی تعیین گردید و شاخص فرسایش‌پذیری خاک (با استفاده از رابطه نسبت رس اصلاح شده)، محاسبه شد. مقایسه میانگین‌ها با استفاده از آزمون تی مستقل وبا استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS نسخه 16، انجام شد. نتایج بیانگر آن است که اعمال قرق در منطقه بزداغی، بر خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک اثر مثبت معنی‌داری گذارده است و شاخص فرسایش پذیری خاک را نیز به‌طور معنی‌داری کاهش داده است (05/0P<). میانگین کربن ترسیب شده در خاک منطقه قرق شده به‌طور معنی‌داری بیشتر از منطقه تحت‌چرا می‌باشد(05/0P<) و ارزش اقتصادی آن، 4709760 تومان برآورد گردید. با توجه به نتایج به‌دست آمده ، خصوصا" ارزش اقتصادی بالای کربن ترسیب یافته در خاک منطقه قرق شده، اعمال قرق در منطقه مورد مطالعه قابل توصیه می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of grazing exclusure on some soil physical and, its erodibility and carbon sequestration (Case study: Bozdaghin rangelands, North Khorasan, Iran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Niknahad 1
  • Abdolbaset Aghtabye 2
  • Mousa Akbarlou 1
1 Assistant Professor, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran
2 M.Sc. Student in Range Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran
چکیده [English]

In view of the increasing adoption of rangeland exclosure in order to rangeland improvement and carbon sequestration, investigation of its effects on the soil properties and calculation of the economic value of sequestered carbon is important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in some soil physico-chemical properties, carbon sequestration rate and its economic value following grazing exclosure as compared with open grazing areas in Bozdaghi rangelands in North - Khorasan province, Iran. Therefore, in each area (exclosure and open grazing) three transects of 500 meter length and 200 meter intervals) were set up. Along each transect, five soil samples were taken at the depth of 0–15 cm in a random – systematic method (15 soil samples in each area) and transferred to the laboratory. In the laboratory, some soil physical and chemical properties such as soil texture, bulk density, porosity, saturation percentage, pH , EC , percentage of organic matter, total nitrogen, the amount of cation exchange capacity, exchangeable sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were measured and erodibility index was calculated by using the modified clay ratio relation. Data analysis was performed by using independent t test in SPSS v.16 software. The results demonstrated that establishment of exclosure in Bozdaghi rangelands had significant positive effects on soil physico-chemical properties, and reduced the soil erodability index significantly (P< 0.05). The mean value of sequestered carbon in the soil of exclosure area was significantly higher than that of open grazing area (P< 0.05) and its economic value was estimated to be 4709760 toman per hectare. According to the results, especially the high economic value of sequestered carbon in the soil of exclosure area, establishment of exclosure in the study area is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Exclosure
  • Soil physico-chemical properties
  • Carbon sequestration
  • Bozdaghi

-  Amghar, F., Forey, E., Margerie, P., Langlois, E., Brouri, L. and Kadi-Hanifi, H., 2012. Grazing exclosure and plantation: a synchronic study of two restoration techniques improving plant community and soil properties in arid degraded steppes (Algeria). Ecologie-La Terre Et La Vie, 67:257-269.

-  Ajami, M., 2007. Soil quality attributes micropedology and clay mineralogy as affected by land use change and geomorphic position on some loess-derivedsoils in eastern Golestan Province, Agh-Su wastershed. M.Sc. Thesis. Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. 191p.

-  Bauer, a., Cole, c. and Black, A., 1987. Soil property comparisons in virgin grass lands between grazed and nongrazed management systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 51:176-182.

-  Berg, W. A., Bradford, J. A. and Sims, P. L., 1997. Long – term nitrogen and vegetation change on sandhill rangeland. Journal of Range Management, 50:482 – 486.

-  Black, C. A., 1986. Methods of soil analysis. Part 1. Physical and mineralogical methods. American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, 1188p.

-  Bouyoucos, G. J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soils. Journal of Agronomy, 54 (5):464–465.

-  Bower, C. A. R., Reitemeier, F. and Fireman, M., 1952. Exchangeable-cation analysis of saline and alkali soils. Soil Science,73:4.251-262.

-  Chaneton, E.J. and Lavado, R.S., 1996. Soil nutrients and salinity after long-term grazing exclusion in a flooding pampa grassland. Journal of Rang Management, 49:2.182-187.

-  Derner, J. D., Briske, D. D. and Boutton, T. W., 1997. Does grazing mediate soil carbon and nitrogen accumulation beneath C4 perennial grasses along an environmental gradient?. Plant and Soil, 191: 147-1

-  Dormaar, J, F., Adams, B. W.and willms, W. D., 1997. Impact of rotational grazing on mixed prairie soils and vegetation . Journal of Range Management, 50: 647-651.

-  Famiglietti, J. S., Rudnicki, J. W. and Rodell, M., 1998. Variability in surface moisture content along a hillslope transect: Rattlesnake Hill, Texas. Journal of Hydrology, 210:1.259-281.

-  Frank, A. B., Tanaka, D. L., Hofmann, L., Follett, R. F., 1995. Soil carbon and nitrogen of Northern Great plains grassland as in fluenced by long- tern grazing . Journal of Range Management, 48: 470-477.

-  Frank, D. A. and Groffman, P. M., 1998. Ungulate vs. landscape control of soil C and N processing in grassland of Yellow Stone National Park. Ecology, . 79:2229-2241.

-  Givi, J. and Asadi, A., 2001. The role of rangeland management in water, soil and vegetation conservation. Second National Conference of Rangeland and Rangeland Management, Iran, 5-7: February, 292-298.

-  Green, D. M. and Kauffman, J. B., 1995. Succession and livestock grazing in a northeast Oregon riparian ecosystem. Journal of  Range Management, 48:307-313.

-  Haidarian-aghakhani, M., Dyanati-tilaki, gh.and Naghipour-borj, A., 2009.  Investigation on the effects of the livestock grazing on the change of soil organic matter and nitrogen in Sisab rangelands. 11th Iranian soil science congress, Gorgan, Iran, 12-14 June.

-  Kaykha, E. and Niknahad-gharmakher, H., 2015. Impact of an alternative system on some soil properties as compare with forest and cropland systems.  Journal of Water and Soil Conservation, 22(2): 127-142.

-  Khormali, F. and Shamsi, S., 2009. Investigation of the quality and micromorphology of soil evolution in different landuses of a loess hillslope of Golestan province, a case study in Ghapan region. Journal of  Agricultural  Sciences and  Natural Resources, 16(3):14-27.

-  Kumar, K., Tripathi, S. K. and Bhatia, K. S., 1995. Erodibility characteristics of Rendhar Watershed soils of  Bundelkhand. Indian Journal of Soil Conservation, 23:1.200-204.

-  McLean, E.O., 1988. Soil pH and lime requirement. P 199-224, In: A.L. Page (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part, American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, Madison.

-  McGill, W. B., Dormaar, J. F.and Reinl-Dwyer, E., 1988. New perspectives on soil organic matter quality, quantity and dynamics on the Canadian prairies. 34th Annual CSSS/AIC Meeting, Calgary, Italia, 2l-24: August: 30-48.

-  Milchunas, D. G.and Lauenroth, W. K., 1993. A quantitative assessment of the effects of grazing on vegetation and soils over a global range of environments. Ecological Monographs, 63: 327–366.

-  Mirzaali, M., Mesdaghi, M. and Erfanzadeh, R., 2006. The study of effects of exclosure on vegetation and soil surface in saline ranges of Gomishan, Golestan province. Journal of  Agricultural  Sciences and  Natural Resources, 13(2):104-201. (In Persian).

-  Mousavi, S, M., 2001. The effect of exclosure on the trend of vegetation and soil changes in Semi-steppe rangelands of Rezaabad,Semnan. Second National Conference of Rangeland and Rangeland management, Iran, February, 252-263.

-  Neff, J. C., Reynolds, R. L., Belnap, J. and Lamothe, P., 2005. Multi-decadal impacts of grazing on soil physical and biogeochemical properties in southeast Utah. Ecological Applications, 15 (1): 87–95.

-  Nelson, D. W. and Sommers, L. E., 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter, P 539-577. In: Page , R. H., Miller, A. L., Keeney, D. R., (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties. Agronomy Monograph, No. 9. American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison.

-  Niknahad – Gharmakher, H., Piutti, M., Machet, S., Benizri, J. M. and Recous, S., 2012. Mineralization-immobilization of sulphur in a soil during decomposition of plant residues of varied chemical composition and S content. Plant and Soil, 360 (2):391-404.

-  Niknahad – Gharmakher, H.and Maramaei, M., 2011. Effects of land use changes on soil properties (Case Study: the Kechik catchment).Journalof Soil Management and Sustainable Production, 1(2): 81-96.

-  Niknahad – Gharmakher, H., Jafari - Foutami, I. and, sharifi, A., 2015. Effects of grazing exclusion on plant productivity and carbon sequestration (Case study: Gomishan rangelands, Golestan province, Iran). Journal of Rangeland Science, 5 (2): 123-134.

-  Larson, W. E. and Stewart, B. A., 1992. Thresholds for soil removal for maintaining cropland productivity. The Soil Quality Standards Symposium, San Antonio, Texas, 6-14.

-  Lemenih, M., Karltun, E. and Olsson, M. 2005. Assessing soil chemical and physical property responses to deforestation and subsequent cultivation in smallholders farming system in Ethiopia. Agriculture, Ecosystem & Environment, 105:1.373-386.

-  Lemma, B., Kleja, D. B., Nilsson, I. and Olsson, M., 2006. Soil carbon sequestration under different exotic tree species in the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia. Geoderma, 136: 886-898.

-  Page, M. C., Sparks, D. L., Woll, M. R. and Hendricks, G. J., 1987. Kinetics and mechanisms of potassium release from sandy Middle Atlantic coastal plain soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 51(6):1460-1465.

-  Page, A. L., Miller, R. H.and Keeney, D. R., 1992. Methods of soil analysis, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties. Agronomy Monograph, No. 9, American Society of Agronomy Inc, Madison.

-  Raiesi, F. and Riahi, M., 2014. The influence of grazing exclosure on soil C stocks and dynamics, andecological indicators in upland arid and semi-arid rangelands. Ecological Indicators, 41: 145–154.

-  Rossignol, N., Bonis, A. and Bouzille, J. B., 2006. Consequence of grazing pattern and vegetation structure on the spatial variations of net N mineralization in wet grassland. Applied Soil Ecology, 31: 62–70.

-  Schneider, K., Huisman, J. A., Breuer, L. and Frede, H. G., 2008. Ambiguous effects of grazing intensity on surface soil moisture: A geostatistical case study from a steppe environment in Inner Mongolia, PR China.  Journal of Arid Environments, 72: 1305-1319.

-  Shariff, A. R., Biondini, M. E. and Grtgiel, C. E., 1994, Grazing intensity effects on litter decomposition and soil nitrogen mineralization. Journal of Range. Management, 47:444-449.

-  Haftay, H., Yayneshet, T., Animut, G., Treydte, A. C., 2013. Rangeland vegetation responses to traditional enclosure management in eastern Ethiopia. The Rangeland Journal, 35: 29–36.

-  Hoshino, A., Tamura, K., Fujimaki, H., Asano, M., Ose, K. and Higashi, T., 2009. Effects of crop abandonment and grazing exclusion on available soil water and other soil properties in a semi-arid Mongolian grassland. Soil and Tillage Research, 105: 228–235.

-  Jeddi, K. and Chaieb, M., 2010. Changes in soil properties and vegetation following livestock grazing exclusion in degraded arid environments of South Tunisia. Flora, 205: 184–189.

-  Varamesh, S. 2009. Effectuality of forestation on soil carbon sequestration and mitigate climate change. First International Conference of the World Soil Erosion and Conservation. Serbia, 27-30 May.

-  Verdoodt, A., Mureithi, S. M., Van – Ranst, E., 2010. Impacts of management and enclosure age on recovery of the herbaceous rangeland vegetation in semi-arid Kenya. Journal of Arid Environments, 74:1066-1073.