عنوان مقاله [English]
Evaluation of important characteristics of soil and vegetation can inform us of the potentials of rangelands and determine the range condition. Soil surface characteristics directly affect vegetation. On the other hand, factors such as plant species, vegetative form and density affect soil characteristics. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of woody plants on soil characteristics using rangelands soil classification method (SSCC) in Khashab rangelands. Eleven soil surface indices within the plant patches of Ziziphus spina cristi and Ziziphus nummularia and Astragalus fasciculifolius as well as a mixture of trees and shrubs (Ziziphus spina cristi + Ziziphus nummularia) and interpatches (bare soil + litter) were measured along three transects of 70 m in five replicates. Then the factors measured in terms of three indices of stability, infiltration and nutrient cycling for each patch were classified. The results showed significant differences for stability index among the study patches, so that Ziziphus spina cristi + Ziziphus nummularia could improve soil stability. Infiltration index did not show significant difference between Ziziphus nummularia and a mixture patch (Ziziphus spina cristi + Ziziphus nummularia). More soil stability in the mixed patch of trees and shrubs (Ziziphus spina cristi + Ziziphus nummularia) could be promising for biological control in south winter rangelands of the country.
- Abedi, M. and Arzani, H., 2004. Determination of the attributes of range health by ecologic indices, the view in evaluating and analyzing of range. Journal of range and forest, 56:24-46.
- Arzani, H., Abedi, M. and Shahryari, E., 2007. Investigation of soil surface indicators and rangeland functional attributes by grazing intense and land cultivation. Journal of range and Desert, 14: 68-79.
- Barbier, E. and Bishop, J. T., 1995. Economic Values and Incentives Affecting Soil and Water Conservation in Developing Countries, Journal of Soil Water Conservation, 45: 4.133-137.
- Baruch, Z., 2005. Vegetation environment relationships and classification of the seasonal savannas in Venezuela_flora, Pp:49-64
- Belnap, J. and Gillette, D. A., 1998. Vulnerability of desert biological crusts to wind erosion: the influences of crust development, soil texture and disturbance. Journal of Arid Environment, 39:133–142.
- Bestelmeyer, B. T., Ward, J. P., Herrick, J. E. and Tugel, A. J., 2006. Fragmentation effects on soil aggregate stability in patchy arid grassland. Rangeland Eco Manage Journal, 59: 406 - 415.
- Butterfield, B. J. and Briggs, J. M., 2008. Patch dynamics of soil biotic feedbacks in the Sonorant desert. Journal of Arid Environments, 73: 96–102.
- Connin, S. L., Virginia, R. A. and Chamberlain, C. P., 1997. Carbon and isotopes reveal soil organic matter dynamics following arid land. Ecological Journal, 110:374–386.
- Dale, V. H. and Beyler, S. C., 2001. Challenges in the development and use of ecological indicators. Rangeland Journal, 16: 16-25.
- De Soyza, A. G., Whitford, W. G. and Herrick, J. E., 1997. Sensitivity testing of indicators of ecosystem health. Ecosystem Health Journal, 3: 44-53.
- Davenport, D. W., Breshears, D. D., Wilcox, B. P. and Allen, C. D., 1998. Viewpoint: Sustainability of pin˜ on–juniper ecosystems—a unifying perspective of soil erosion thresholds. Journal of Range Management, 5:231–240.
- Ghelichnia, H., 2005. Assessment soil factors on rangeland in arid and semiarid. Journal of Environmental, 32: 117-126.
- Ghodsi, M., Mesdaghi, M. and Heshmati, G. A., 2012. Effect of different growth forms on soil surface features (Case study: Semi-steppe rangeland, Golestan National Park). Journal of Watershed Management Research, 93:63-69.
- Ghorbani, M. and Hosseni, S., 2005. Poverty of soil nutrition: An economic views on erosion in Iran. Journal of Agriculture. Science Natural Resource, 12:147-157.
- Gregory, P. J., 2006. Plant Roots, Growth, Activity and Interaction with Soils. Blackwell Pub. UK. 24.
- Gutierrez, J. and Hernandez, I. I., 1996. Runoff and in Terrill erosion as affected by grass cover in a semi-arid rangeland of northern Mexico. Arid Environment Journal, 34:287–295.
- Heshmati, G. A. and Squires, V. R., 2011. Application of Ecological Theory to Management of Arid Dry lands: An Example from China. Journal of Rangeland Science, 1 2: 111-119.
- Jafari, M., Zare Chahooki, M. A., Rahimzade, N. and Shafihzade Nasrabadani, M., 2008. Comparison of litter quality and its effect on habitat soil of three range species in Vardavard region. Range, 12: 1-10.
- Khalasi, L. and Heshmati, G. A., 2013. Evaluating different patches, Using LFA method to control wind erosion (Case study: Hanitiyeh rangelands of Ahvaz city). Journal of Research Quarterly On Environmental Erosion Researches. 7: 44-56.
- Li, X. J., Li, X. R., Song, W. M., Gao, Y. P., Zheng, J. G. and Jia, R. L., 2007. Effects of crust and shrub patches on runoff, sedimentation, and related nutrient (C, N) redistribution in the desertified steppe zone of the Tengger Desert, Northern China. Geomorphology Journal, 96: 221–232.
- Lotfi Anari, P., Heshmati, G. A. and Bahremand, A., 2010. The Effect of Different Patches and Interpatch on Infiltration Rate in an Arid Shrubland Ecosystem. Journal of Research of Environmental Sciences, 4: 57-63.
- Ludwig, J., Tongway, D., Freudenberger, D., Noble, D. and Hodginson, D., 1997. Land scape ecology and management, principle of Australia, s rangeland. CSIRO Publication, 123p.
- Mcintyre, S., Tongway, D. and Lambeek, R., 2003. Improved vegetation planning for rural landscapes. Land & Water Pproject. CTC27.125 p.
- Montgomery, D. R., 2007. Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Ph.D. thesis, 350p.
- Oulyaei, H., Adhami, A., Faraji, H. and Fayaz, P., 2011. Effects of Quercus brantii Lindl on soil characterization to yasouj forest. Journal of Soil and Water Science, 56: 193-26.
- Pellant, M., Shaver, P., Pyke, D. A. and Herrick, J. E., 2005. Interpreting indicators of rangeland health, vol. version 4. Technical Reference 1734-6, USDI, BLM, National Science. And Tech Center, Denver. Colo.270.
- Rezaei, S. A. and Tongway, D. J., 2005. Assessing rangeland capability in Iran using landscape function indices based on soil surface attributes. Journal of Arid Environment, 65: 460-473
- Reid, K. D., Wilcox, B. P., Breshears, D. D. and MacDonald, L., 1999. Runoff and erosion in a pinon–juniper woodland: Influence of vegetation patches. Soil Science Journal, 63:1869–1879.
- Sabeti, H. A., 1975. Relation between plant and environment (synecology). Dehkhoda. Press, 492 p.
- Shafiee, A., Khazaei, M., Molaei, A. and Soofi, M., 2011. Study and Comparison of Pedological and Morphoclimatical Characteristics of Gullies. Journal of Irrigation and Water Engineering, 5: 26-38.
- Sallaway, M. M. and Waters, D. K, 1994. Spatial variation in runoff generation in granitic grazing lands. Proceedings of “Water Down Under” hydrology conference, Adelaide. Institute of Engineers Australia, 390p.
- SRM Task Group (Society for Range Management Task Groups on Unity in Concept and Terminology Committee, Society for Range Management). 1995. New concepts for assessment of rangeland condition. Journal of range manage. 48: 271-282
- Schlesinger, W. H., Reynolds, J. R., Cunningham, G. L., Huneker, L. F., Jarrell, W. M., Virginia, R. A. and Whitford, W.G., 1990. Biological feedbacks in global desertification. Science Journal, 247:1043–1048.
- Smith, D. D. and Wischmeier. W. H., 1962. Rainfall erosion. Advanced Agronomy, 14:109–148.
- Swinnen, E., 2008. Vegetation dynamic patterns related to rainfall variability analyzed with wavelet coherency for Southern Africa. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences Journal, 7:763-769.
- Tongway, D. J. and Hindley, N., 2003. Indicators of ecosystem rehabilitation success: stage two, verification of EFA indicators. Final report to the Australian center for mining environmental research. Produced by the center for mined land rehabilitation, University of Queensland, Brisbane and CSIRO sustainable ecosystems. Canberra, Australia. 66p.
- Tongway, D. J. and Hindley, N. L., 2004. Landscape function analysis: procedures for monitoring and assessing landscapes with special reference to mine sites and rangelands, Version 3.1. Published on CD by CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Canberra, Australia, 158p..