بررسی کیفیت علوفه‌ای چهار گونه مرتعی از خانواده کاسنی (مطالعه موردی مراتع بافت در استان کرمان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، بخش تحقیقات علوم دامی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمان، ایران

2 استاد، بخش تحقیقات تغذیه دام، مؤسسه تحقیقات علوم دامی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمان، ایران

3 کارشناس ارشد بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمان، ایران

4 عضو هیئت علمی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمان، ایران

چکیده

تعیین کیفیت علوفه مراتع عامل مهمی در ارزیابی وضعیت تغذیه دام‌های وابسته به مرتع، تعیین زمان مناسب چرا، افزایش عملکرد دام‌ها و آسیب کمتر به مراتع است. این مطالعه به‌منظور تعیین ارزش غذایی و قابلیت هضم چهار گونه غالب از خانواده کاسنی در مراتع بافت در استان کرمان انجام شد. گونه‌ها شامل درمنه کوهی (aucheriArtemisia)، درمنه دنائی(Artemisiapersica)، شنگ‌اسبی بیابانی(Scorzoneratortusissima)وهزار‌خار خنجری (Cousinasicigera)بودند که در مراحل رشد شامل رویشی، گلدهی و بذردهی نمونه‌برداری شدند. نتایج نشان داد که میانگین ترکیبات شیمیایی گونه‌های مذکور در مراحل مختلف رشد به‌ترتیب حاوی 94/9، 95/8، 21/6 و 40/10 درصد پروتئین خام 62/45، 77/45، 07/61 و 83/42 درصد NDF و 77/32، 05/33، 61/46 و 73/31 درصد ADF بودند. در همه گونه‌ها با افزایش سن گیاه غلظت پروتئین خام کاهش (01/0>p) و به‌‌جز گونه شنگ‌اسبی بیابانی در سایر گونه‌ها میزان NDF و ADF افزایش (01/0>p) یافت. میانگین قابلیت هضم ماده خشک در گونه‌های مذکور در مراحل مختلف رشد به‌ترتیب 41/57، 054/53، 34/45 و 67/39 درصد تعیین شد و میانگین انرژی قابل متابولیسم در مراحل مختلف رشد نیز به‌ترتیب در گونه‌های مذکور 24/2، 24/2، 86/1 و 26/2 کالری در گرم ماده خشک برآورد گردید. میانگین غلظت عناصر معدنی کلسیم، سدیم، پتاسیم، منیزیم، آهن و منگنز در این چهار گونه مرتعی بیش از حد بحرانی نیازهای گوسفند و بز بود، در حالی‌که غلظت عناصر فسفر، مس و روی در این گیاهان کمتر از حد بحرانی آن برای گوسفند و بز بود. به‌طور کلی چهار گونه مورد مطالعه از نظر پروتئین خام و انرژی قابل متابولیسم به‌ویژه در مراحل اولیه رشد تأمین کننده نیازهای گوسفند و بزهای منطقه می‌باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation on forage quality of four range species of compositae family (A case study in rangelands of Baft in Kerman province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Pirooz Shakeri 1
  • Hasan Fazaeli 2
  • Ahmad Pourmirzaee 3
  • Seyed Hamid Mostafavi 4
1 Associate professor, Animal Science Research Department, Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resource Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Kerman, Iran
2 Professor, Animal Nutrition Research Department, Animal Science Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
3 Senior Research Expert, Natural Resource Department, Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resource Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Kerman, Iran
4 Academic Member, Agricultural and Natural Resource Research and Education Center, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Kerman, Iran
چکیده [English]

    Determination of rangeland forage quality is an important factor in assessing the nutrition status of livestock dependent on rangeland, determining suitable grazing time, increasing livestock efficacy and less damaging to rangelands. This study was conducted to determine the nutritional value and digestibility of four dominant species of Compositae family in Baft rangelands located in Kerman province. The species including: Artemisia aucheri, Artemisia persica, Scorzonera tortusissimaand Cousina sicigera, which weresampled in phonological stages of vegetative growth, flowering and seeding. The results showed that the mean values of chemical composition of the mentioned species at different growth stages were 9.94, 8.9, 6.21 and 10.40% of crude protein (CP), 45.62, 45.77, 61.07 and 42.83% of NDF and 32.77, 33.05, 46.61 and 31.73% of ADF, respectively. By increasing age of all plant species, CP was decreased (P<0.01) but except for Scorzonera tortusissima, the values of NDF and ADF were increased in other species (P<0.01). The average digestibility of the mentioned species dry matter at vegetative, flowering and seeding stages were 57.41, 53.54, 45.34 and 39.67%, respectively. The average of metabolizable energy (ME) of the mentioned species at vegetative, flowering and seeding stages were estimated to be 2.24, 2.24, 1.86 and 2.26 Cal/g, respectively. The average concentrations of mineral elements such as calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron and manganese of these four rangeland species were more than the critical requirements of sheep and goat, while the concentrations of phosphorus, copper and zinc in these plants were less than the critical level for sheep and goat requirements. Generally, the four species studied in terms of CP and ME, especially in the early stages of growth, provide the needs of sheep and goats in the region.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Baft
  • Chicory
  • Kerman
  • forage quality
  • nutritional value
  • rangeland

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