بررسی اثربخشی روش‌های مرتع‌داری (تعادلی، طبیعی و مصنوعی) در مدیریت مراتع ییلاقی (مطالعة‌ موردی مراتع گزنک آمل- حوزة آبخیز رودخانه هراز)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای علوم مرتع، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط‌زیست، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 استاد، گروه احیاء مناطق خشک و کوهستانی، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه مرتع، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط‌زیست، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

4 استادیار، گروه اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی و صنایع غذایی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مهمترین سیاست اجرایی دستگاه متولی مراتع، تهیه و اجرای طرح‌های مرتع‌داری است. اصلاح، توسعه و بهره‌برداری از مراتع، منوط به شناخت وضعیت موجود مرتع و انتخاب یکی از روش‌های مرتع‌داری بر اساس وضعیت مرتع (تعادلی، طبیعی و مصنوعی) و اجرای آن در قالب طرح مرتع‌داری است. مطالعه پیش‌رو با هدف بررسی اثربخشی روش‌های مرتع‌داری بکار گرفته شده در 16 سامان عرفی اطراف منطقه‌ گزنک از توابع شهرستان آمل در حوزه‌ آبخیز هراز انجام شده است. بر این اساس، ابتدا آمار و اطلاعات مراتع، شامل درصد پوشش تاجی کل و نیز هریک از گونه‌های مهم خوشخوراک و زیادشونده، وضعیت، گرایش و تولید مرتع در زمان تهیه طرح استخراج و بعد هریک از خصوصیات مذکور در سال 1395 بررسی و ارزیابی شد. برای تجزیه‌وتحلیل و مقایسه تیمار‌ها (روش مرتع‌داری)، تعیین اختلافات و انتخاب بهترین شیوه‌ مرتع‌داری از آنالیز واریانس داده‌ها، در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 3 تیمار (روش مرتع‌داری تعادلی، طبیعی و مصنوعی) استفاده گردید. برای مقایسه اثر هریک از روش‌ها در زمان اجرای طرح و در شرایط فعلی بر وضعیت مراتع، گرایش و تولید مراتع، از آزمون مقایسه میانگین دانکن و برای مقایسه ویژگی‌های کمّی که قبل و بعد از اجرای طرح‌های مرتع‌داری اندازه‌گیری شده‌اند، از آزمون t مستقل دو نمونه‌ای و برای مقایسه ویژگی‌های کیفی از آزمون ناپارامتری  Mann-Whitney Uاستفاده شد. محاسبه‌های آماری و مقایسه میانگین تیمارها با نرم‌افزار SPSS انجام گردید. نتایج این تحقیق، نشان داد که انتخاب روش‌های مرتع‌داری تعادلی و طبیعی برای مراتع با وضعیت خوب و متوسط، تأثیر معنی‌داری بر پوشش تاجی کل مراتع داشته امّا موجب ارتقا درجه وضعیت مراتع و یا افزایش معنی‌دار درصد پوشش و درصد ترکیب گونه‌های مهم خوشخوراک مراتع نشده است. بی‌شک علت آن، اجرای ناموفق برنامه‌های پیش‌بینی شده در طرح‌های مرتع‌داری است. از سوی دیگر هر چند انتخاب روش مرتع‌داری مصنوعی در طرح‌های دارای تیپ‌های گیاهی ضعیف به درستی انجام نشده، امّا در عمل اجرای این طرح‌ها تأثیر معنی‌داری بر وضعیت و گرایش مراتع منطقه نداشته است؛ اگرچه درصد پوشش تاجی گونه‌های نامرغوب مرتعی در آنها با افزایش روبه‌رو بوده، اما در طول 25 سال اخیر، در کل درصد پوشش تاجی و تولید این مراتع کاهش یافته است. ازاین‌رو بنظر می‌رسد اثربخشی طرح‌های مرتع‌داری زمانی بیشتر خواهد شد، که طرح‌ها در حالت تعادل دام در مرتع اجرا شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the effects of range management methods (Balanced, Natural and Artificial) on range management (Case study of Gazanak Amol Rangelands, Haraz River Basin)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kambiz Kamrani 1
  • Hossein Arzani 2
  • Seyed Akbar Javadi 3
  • Reza Azizinejad 4
1 Student of Range Management, Department of Range Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and the Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Reclamation of Arid and Mountainous Regions, Natural Resources Faculty, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Faculty of Natural Resources and the Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
4 Faculty of Agricultural Sciences & Food Industries, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The most important executive policy of the government is optimizing range management plans in the rangelands. Improvement, development and proper exploitation of rangelands depend on understanding the current rangeland condition and selecting a range management method (balanced, natural and artificial) to be implemented in the form of a range management plan (RMP). Data were collected from 16 ranch units of Haraz River watershed to investigate differences in methods. At first, the statistics and information of the rangelands including the total percentage of vegetation and each of the important desirable and increasing species, rangeland condition and trend, and rangeland production were extracted and studied in 2016.  To determine the best range management method based on rangeland condition, the analysis of variance was used in a completely randomized design with three treatments. To compare the effect of each method during the implementation of the plan and in the current situation on the rangeland condition, trend and production of rangelands, the Duncan's test and to compare the quantitative characteristics measured before and after the implementation of the rangeland management plans, a two-sample independent t-test were used. Moreover, the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare qualitative characteristics using SPSS. In this research, rangeland management methods were considered as a treatment and time intervals were considered as a replicate. The results showed that although the vegetation percentage of palatable species composition did not increase, the balanced and natural methods were the best rangeland management methods in the good and fair rangeland condition, respectively. The reason for not increasing the palatable species was the unsuccessful implementation of planned programs in Range Management Plans (RMPs). On the other hand, although the artificial range management method was correctly performed in the RMPs with poor vegetation types, the implementation of these plans had no significant effect on the rangeland condition and trend of the study rangelands due to the high livestock population. It has also caused the cost of implementing reclamation and improvement projects on the beneficiaries. Although the percentage of vegetation cover of undesirable species of rangelands has increased, over the past 25 years, the total percentage of canopy cover and production has decreased. It seems that rangeland plans will be more effective when there is a balance between grazing capacity and livestock population.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gazanak
  • rangeland management methods
  • optimal rangeland management range management plans
  • range condition

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