ارزیابی روند تغییرات کمی و کیفی آب زیرزمینی دشت کرج

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای مدیریت و کنترل بیابان، گروه احیاء مناطق خشک و کوهستانی، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

2 استاد، گروه احیاء مناطق خشک و کوهستانی، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه احیاء مناطق خشک و کوهستانی، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

4 دانشجوی دکترای بیابان‌زدایی، گروه احیاء مناطق خشک و کوهستانی، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

چکیده

مدیریت استفاده بهینه از منابع آب یکی از مهمترین مسائل مطرح در توسعه پایدار به‌شمار می‌آید. با توجه به اهمیت مطالعه آب‌های زیرزمینی در زمینه شرب، صنعت و کشاورزی، بررسی تغییرات کیفی آب می‌تواند برای بشر حائز اهمیت باشد. در این پژوهش، به‌منظور بررسی تغییر کمی و کیفی آب زیرزمینی دشت کرج از دو شاخص افت آب زیرزمینی و هدایت الکتریکی (EC) استفاده شده است و هیدروگراف‌های تراز آب با روش تیسن بر پایه داده‌های چاه‌های پیزومتری ترسیم‌ و نقشه خطوط هم‌افت، هم‌ارتفاع و هم EC با بهره‌گیری از سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS) ترسیم گردیده است. همچنین تغییرات کمی چاه‌ها در ماه‌های مختلف در یک دوره 15 ساله (95-1380) تعیین شد. نتایج حاصل از هیدروگراف‌های تراز آب زیرزمینی نشان می‌دهد که طی 15 سال میزان افت متوسط سالانه 02/1 متر (102 سانتی‌متر) بوده است که به‌نوبه خود موجب کاهش کیفیت آب زیرزمینی نیز شده است. همچنین نقشه‌های تغییرات کمی نشان می‌دهد سطح وسیعی از دشت کرج به دلیل عدم تغذیه مناسب و برداشت‌های بی‌رویه از آب زیرزمینی دارای افت آب است. رابطه بین هدایت الکتریکی با آنیون‌ها و کاتیون‌های اصلی (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ , CL- Na+,So42-, Hco3-)بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد که هدایت الکتریکی آب زیرزمینی دشت کرج در همه قسمت‌ها (به‌غیراز آنیون بی‌کربنات) با غلظت یون‌های اصلی موجود در آب رابطه مستقیم دارد که مشخص‌کننده تغییر تیپ آب از بی‌کربناته به سمت سولفاته و کلرور سدیک است. شاخص معیار بارش سالانه (SIAP) نیز برای پنج ایستگاه هواشناسی محاسبه ‌شد و مشخص گردید که برخی از سال‌ها با کاهش بارندگی، بروز خشک‌سالی و درنتیجه با افزایش افت آب زیرزمینی مواجه شده است.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of qualitative and quantitative changes of groundwater resources in Karaj Plain

نویسندگان [English]

  • Leila Biabani 1
  • Gholamreza Zehtabian 2
  • Hasan Khosravi 3
  • Mahin Hanifepour 4
1 Ph.D. Student in Desert Management and Control, Department of Rehabilitation of Arid and Mountainous Regions, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Rehabilitation of Arid and Mountainous Regions, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Rehabilitation of Arid and Mountainous Regions, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 Ph.D. Student in Combat Desertification, Department of Rehabilitation of Arid and Mountainous Regions, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran, Email
چکیده [English]

     Managing the optimal use of water resources is one of the most important issues in sustainable development. Considering the importance of studying groundwater in the field of drinking, industry and agriculture, the study of water qualitative changes can be important for humankind. In this study, groundwater level depletion and electrical conductivity (EC) were used to investigate the quantitative and qualitative changes of groundwater in Karaj plain. The water level hydrographs were drown using Thiessen method based on the piezometric wells data and the groundwater depletion, the elevation contour line, and iso- electrical conductivity maps were provided using GIS. Quantitative changes were studied with reading of each well in different months in a 15-year period (2001-2016). The obtained results showed that the vast range of Karaj plain was depleted due to the lack of proper recharge as well as the over-exploration of groundwater. In addition, the relation between EC and anions and cations (such as Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Cl-, Na+, SO42-, HCO3-) were determined. The calculated Standard Index of Annual Precipitation (SIAP) in five meteorological stations showed groundwater depletion due to rainfall reducing and drought. Electrical conductivity had direct relation with concentration of ions in all cases. According to the hydrographs, the average level of groundwater decreased to 1.02 m over 15 years and the groundwater level depletion consequently decreased the water quality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Quantitative and qualitative changes
  • Hydrograph
  • Electrical conductivity
  • drop in groundwater

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