تغییرات پوشش گیاهی مراتع کوهستانی سیراچال در اثر آتش‌سوزی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات مرتع، موسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

2 محقق، بخش تحقیقات مرتع، موسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

آتش­سوزی در مراتع تاثیرات قابل توجهی بر فاکتورهای گیاهی و خاک دارد. در این تحقیق اثرات آتش­سوزی بر فاکتورهای گیاهی مراتع نیمه استپی سیراچال به مدت سه سال (94-1396) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. دو مرتع انتخابی از لحاظ تیپ گیاهی مشابه بوده (قبل از آتش­سوزی) و در کنار یکدیگر قرار دارند. دو تیمار مراتع شاهد و مراتع آتش­گرفته با استفاده از ترانسکت و کوادرات(30 پلات) به مدت سه سال متوالی آماربرداری شدند. فاکتورهای گیاهی شامل درصد تاج پوشش، تولید، تراکم، غنای گونه ای و فرم رویشی بود. تجزیه و تحلیل آماری تیمارها با آزمون t مستقل و مقایسه سال‌های مختلف در هر یک از مراتع آتش­سوزی شده یا شاهد با استفاده از آزمون تجزیه واریانس و مقایسه میانگین‌ها با آزمون دانکن‌ بین تکرارها انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد آتش­سوزی در طی سال‌های اجرای طرح اثر معنی­داری بر روی درصد تاج پوشش و تولید کل گونه­های مرتعی نداشته است، ولی بر روی تراکم کل گونه­های مرتعی اثر مثبت و معنی­دار داشته است. اختلاف بالای تراکم در مقایسه با پوشش و تولید، به دلیل کم بودن پوشش و تولید نهال­های تازه روئیده است. به عبارت دیگر نهال­های تازه روئیده گیاهان دارای سطح تاج پوشش اندک و تولید کم، اما دارای تراکم بالایی هستند. از لحاظ غنای گونه­ای بیشترین اختلاف مربوط به عدم حضور گونه­های بوته­ای در مرتع آتش­گرفته می­باشد اما با اینحال بر اساس شاخص سورنسون دو تیمار از لحاظ گونه­های گیاهی مشابه می­باشند. همچنین از لحاظ فرم رویشی، آتش­سوزی بر روی درصد تاج پوشش، تراکم و تولید فرم رویشی علفی اثر مثبت و معنی­دار، بر روی درصد تاج پوشش و تراکم فرم رویشی گندمی نیز اثر مثبت و معنی­دار داشته است  اما اثر قابل ملاحظه‌ منفی و معنی­داری بر روی فرم رویشی بوته­ایی­ها داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Changes in vegetation cover of Sirachal mountain rangelands due to fire

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Eftekhari 1
  • Mahmoud Goudarzi 2
  • Parvaneh Ashouri 1
  • Rostam Khalifehzadeh 2
1 Assistant Professor, Rangeland Research Division, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
2 Senior Expert Research, Rangeland Research Division, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

    Fire in rangelands has significant effects on plant and soil factors. In this research, the effects of fire on plant factors were investigated in semi-steppe rangelands of Sirachal for three years (2015-2017). The two selected rangelands were similar in terms of vegetation type (before the fire) were next to each other. The treatments included control rangelands and burned rangelands, and sampling was performed using transects and quadrates (30 plots) for three consecutive years. Vegetation factors included canopy cover, production, density, species richness, and life form. The statistical analysis of the treatments was carried out using the independent t-test. Comparison of different years, in each of the burned or control rangelands, was done using analysis of variance and the means were compared with Duncan's test. The results showed that fire during the years of the project did not have a significant effect on the canopy percentage and the production of all rangeland species, but it had a positive and significant effect on the density of all rangeland species. High difference in density compared to the cover and production could be due to the low canopy cover and production of new seedlings. In other words, new seedlings of plants had a low canopy cover, low production, and a high density. In terms of species richness, the highest difference is related to the absence of shrub species in the burned rangeland; however, according to the Sorenson index, the two treatments were similar in terms of plant species. Also, in terms of life form, fire had a positive and significant effect on the cover percentage, density and production of forbs, a positive and significant effect on the cover percentage and density of grasses, and a significant negative effect on the shrubs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • fire
  • Vegetative form
  • Sorenson Index
  • Shrub species
  • Sirachal

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