تأثیر سایه‌انداز چهار گیاه مرتعی بر برخی پارامترهای کیفیت خاک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه جیرفت، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه باهنر کرمان، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه جیرفت، کرمان، ایران

چکیده

پوشش گیاهی مهم‌ترین عامل تاثیرگذار بر پایداری و تعادل اکوسیستم‌ها می‌باشد؛ بنابراین شناخت عواملی که باعث استقرار و پراکنش جوامع گیاهی می‌شوند و نیز تأثیر جوامع گیاهی بر ویژگی‌های اکوسیستم دارای اهمیت بالایی می‌باشد. هدف از این تحقیق بررسی تأثیر سایه‌انداز چهار گونه گیاه مرتعی کرقیچ (Hertia angustifolia (DC.) Kuntze)، مخلصه (Pyrethrum roseum)، گون سفید (Astragalus gossypinus Fischer.) و درمنه (Artemisia sieberi Besser) بر ویژگی‌های کیفی خاک بود. بدین منظور تحقیق حاضر در منطقه ساردوئیه شهرستان جیرفت انجام شد. نمونه‌برداری به صورت بلوک کاملاً تصادفی در قالب آزمون فاکتوریل انجام شد. نمونه‌برداری در سه نقطه از یک مرتع، در دو بخش از گیاه یعنی پای بوته تا لبه تاج پوشش و خارج از تاج پوشش در سه تکرار و تا عمق 30 سانتی‌متری از سطح برداشت شد که در مجموعه 72 نمونه گرفته شد. فاکتورهای مورد بررسی شامل آهک،  شوری (EC)، بافت خاک (شن، سیلت، رس)، تنفس میکروبی، pH، مقدار کربن آلی و آبگریزی خاک بودند. نتایج نشان داد کربن آلی، شوری و آبگریزی، در زیر سایه‌انداز به طور معنی‌داری بیشتر از خارج سایه‌انداز گیاهان مورد مطالعه بود (p<0/05). افزایش مقدار کربن آلی در زیر پوشش گیاهی می‌تواند به علت ریزش‌های برگی و همچنین تأثیر محیط ریزوسفر و در نتیجه افزایش تنفس و تجزیه میکروبی و متعاقب آن باعث تجمع بیشتر املاح و شوری بیشتر خاک باشد. از طرفی، به نظر می‌رسد که افزایش مقدار ماده آلی، موجب افزایش معنی‌دار آبگریزی خاک در زیر سایه‌انداز در مقایسه با خارج از آن شده است. کمتر بودن ذرات سیلت به عنوان حساس‌ترین جزء خاک به فرسایش و نیز زیاد بودن ذرات شن در خارج از سایه‌انداز در مقایسه با داخل آن می‌تواند ناشی از بیشتر بودن فرسایش بارانی به ویژه فرسایش ورقه‌ای در خارج از سایه‌انداز گیاهی باشد و به بیان دیگر می‌تواند نشان دهنده نقش مثبت آسمانه گیاه در پایداری بیشتر اکوسیستم خاک باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of canopy covers of four rangeland plants on some soil quality indices

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zeynab Kekha 1
  • Naser Boroumand 2
  • Javad Zamani Babgohari 3
1 Former M.Sc. Student in Soil Science, University of Jiroft, Kerman, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran,
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural, University of Jiroft, Kerman, Iran
چکیده [English]

   Vegetation is the most important factor affecting the stability of ecosystems. Therefore, the study of the factors causing the establishment and distribution of plants as well as the effect of plant species on the characteristics of ecosystem is important. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of canopy cover of four rangeland plants (Hertia angustifolia (DC.) Kuntze, Pyrethrum roseum, Astragalus gossypinus Fischer. and Artemisia sieberi Besser) on some of soil quality indices. Thus, this study was conducted in a rangeland of Sardoie – Jiroft. Soil sampling was carried out in three parts of this rangeland in- and out of the plants (depth < 30cm), and calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE), salinity (EC), acidity (pH), soil texture (sand, silt, clay), microbial respiration (MR), organic carbon content (OC), and water repellency of the soils were measured. The results showed that OC, EC, CCE, and water repellency in-side the plant canopy were significantly higher than those out-side the plant canopy (P<0.05). Also, more OC in-side the plant canopy and their decomposition could cause more microbial respiration as well as more salinity and more water repellency. The results also showed that the amount of silt as the most sensitive particle to erosion out-side plants was less than in-side but it was opposite for sand particles that it may show more water erosion in the bare land, especially sheet erosion, indicating the positive effect of plant canopy on the stability of soil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Plant canopy
  • Soil quality
  • Soil physicochemical properties
  • ecosystem sustainability
  • repellency

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