عنوان مقاله [English]
Clematis ispahanica is a rare, palatable, and endangered species of Iran. In this research, the distribution of this species was investigated in rangelands of Bavanat and Mehriz cities in Fars and Yazd provinces. For vegetation sampling, the study areas were classified and 30 plots (2 × 3 m) were established using random- systematic sampling method in key areas. Soil samples were taken at the depth of 0-30 cm (based on the depth of rooting). Independent t-test was used to compare soil chemical properties of the two regions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the most effective factors affecting soil properties of the two regions.The effect of phenological stage, area, and interaction between phenological stage and area on forage quality indices (CP, DMD, ME and ADF) was determined using a General Linear Model (GLM). The interaction of area × phenological stage on forage quality was investigated using a completely randomized design. The results demonstrated that the best spatial distribution pattern of this species was the northern slopes and relatively flat topography. Our results revealed that this species was found in non-saline soil (EC<2), sandy loam, loamy sand and sandy textures with a pH of 8.6-8.9, %0.4-%0.7 organic carbon, %0.09-% 0.13 nitrogen, 13.9-22.1 ppm phosphorus, %42-%59 calcium carbonate, and 2-2.45 mg/lit potassium. The results of PCA indicated that soil organic carbon (OC), electrical conductivity (EC), and acidity (pH) were the most effective components of the soil in two study areas. The results demonstrated that in the growth and flowering stages, forage quality indices of this species in Bavanat area were significantly higher than those of Mehriz area, but in the seeding stage, the study indices in Mehriz area was higher as compared with Bavanat area. No significant correlation was found between soil chemical properties and forage quality indices. Thus, it can be concluded that the effect of climate on forage quality indices is higher than edaphic factors. In general, it can be stated that the high forage quality of C. isphanica can be one of the reasons putting this species at risk of extinction.
-Abd El-Rahman, H. H., 2008. Improvement of the nutritive value of some unpalatable desert plants by ensiling treatment with palatable plants and molasses additives. mansoura university, Journal of agricultural sciences, (33):8001–8010.
-Ahmadi, Z. and Atrak Chali, A. A., 2015. Forage quality of five species in different phonological stages in Ramiyan rangelands of Golestan. Iranian Journal of Range, 9 (3): 235-243.
-Ahmadi, Z. and Atrak Chali, A.S., 2009. The effect of climatic factors on rangeland ecosystem performance indicators in Golestan province. Iranian national conference on water crisis in agriculture and natural resources, Shahr Rey, Azad University of Rey.
-Amiri, S., 2014. Evaluation of morphological characteristics, pollen method and essential oil content of Clematis ispahanica under stress and drought stress conditions. Master's Degree of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, 40p.
-Arzani, H., 2009. Fodder quality and daily requirement of livestock. Tehran University Press, 256 p.
-Arzani, H., Torkan, J., Jafari, M., Jalili, A. and Nikkhah, A., 2001. Effects of ecological and phenological factors on forage quality of some rangeland species. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 32 (2): 385-399.
-Arzani, ha., Motamedi, J. and Zare Chahuki, M. A., 2010. Report on national quality of forage of rangelands, Organization of Forests, Rangelands and Watershed Management of the country.
-Arzani, Hb., Piri Sahragard, h., Turkan, J. and Saedi, K., 2010. Comparison of forage quality of some plant species of Saral rangelands in different phonological stages, 4 (2): 160-167.
-Ashrafzadeh, M., Hosseini Kahnouj, S. H. and Azarnivand, H., 2013. Investigating the behavior of goat breed Mamassani in ranches in Bavanat. Iranian Journal of Range, 7 (4): 272-281.
-Ashrafzadeh, M. and Erfanzadeh, R., 2013. Relationship between forage quality and palatability of important rangeland species in Zarin-Dasht rangelands of Fars province. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 20 (4): 756-768.
-Ashrafzadeh, M., Erfanzadeh, R. and Hosseini Kahnouj, S.H., 2015. Effect of soil chemical properties on the forage quality of dry rangelands south of Fars province. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 2 (22): 382-391.
-Azarnivand, H. and Zare Chahuki, M.A., 2010. Rangeland Reproduction, Tehran University Press, 354 p.
-Batooli, H., 2003. Biodiversity and species richness of the vegetable elements of Ghezelan reserves in Kashan. Journal of Research and Development in Natural Resources, 61: 85-103.
-Baybordi, M., 1993. Soil physics. Tehran University Press, 658 pp.
-Boissier, E. 1867., Flora orientalis. Genevae and Basileae, Lugduni, Vol 2, 514p.
-Bower, C. A., 1955. Determination of exchangeable magnesium in soils containing dolomite. Soil Science Saciety of America Proceedings, 19:40-42.
-Camping, T. J., Dahlgren, R. A., Tate, K. W. and Horwath, W. R., 2002. Changes in soil quality due to grazing and oak tree removal in California blue oak woodlands. In: Standiford RB, McCreary D, Purcell KL (eds.). Oaks in California’s Changing Landscape. Berkeley, CA: USDA, Gen. Tech. PSW- 184. p 75-85.
-Dahlgren, R. A., Horwath, W. R., Tate, K. W. and Camping, T. J., 2003. Blue oak enhance soil quality in California oak woodlands. Journal of California Agriculture, 57 (2): 42-47.
-Galhidy, L., Mihk, B., Hagy, A., Rajkai, K. and Standovr, T., 2006. Effects of gap size and associated changes in light and soil moisture on the understorey vegetation of a Hungarian beech forest. Journal of Plant Ecology, 183: 133–145.
-Heydari, M., Pourbabayi, H. and Esmailzadeh, A., 2015. Investigation of the effects of habitat characteristics and human degradation on the diversity of subspecies and soil plant species in the Zagros forest ecosystem using path analysis method. Journal of Plant Research (Iranian Journal of Biology), 28 (3): 535-548.
-Jackson, D. A., 1993. Stopping in principal components analysis: a comparison of heuristical and statistical approaches. Journal of Ecology, 74, 2204- 2214.
-Jafari Haghighi, M., 2003. Methods of soil degradation, sampling and important physical and chemical analysis. Neday Zoha Publications, 240 p.
-Jafari, M. and Tavili, A., 2010. Restoration of arid and desert regions. Tehran University Press. Iran, 396 p.
-Jahantab, E, Mehrabi, A., javdani, Z. and Ghafar, S., 2014. Assessment of Herbal Medicine in province and District of Bowyer-Ahmad/Iran. International Journal of Agriculture Crop Sciences, 7 (5):279-292. Pp.
-Johnny Ghorban, M., 1999. The study of Clematis ispahanica Boiss through cuttings. Iranian Journal of Research and Development, 44 (3): 22-25.
-Khalili Dehkordi, B., Rafiyan, M., Hejazi, S .H., Yousefi, H. A., Yektaeyan, N. and Shirani Bidabadi, L., 2010. Study on the Effect of Plant Extract of Achilles, Artemisia absinthium and Jugelans leaf on Trichomonas Vaginalis in Experimental Planting. Journal of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, 12 (4): 62 -69.
-Khorasani Nejad, Z., Ajorloo, M., Pahlavaruni, A. and Yousefollahi, M., 2018. Forage quality of three species of Grasses in different phonological stages in the rangelands of Aslameh Kalateh Chenar, Dargaz city. Journal of Range, 12 (1): 24-34.
-Kjeldahl, J., 1883. A new method for the determination of nitrogen in organic matter. Zeitschreft fur Analytics Chemise, 22: 366-1883. Pp.
-Kohpayeh, A., Ghasemi Pirbalouti, A., Yazdan Panaah Ravari, M. M., Pour Mohseni Nasab, A. and Arjemand, D., 2011. Traditional Ethno veterinary study of medicinal plants in Kerman province. Journal of Plant Medicine, 2 (3): 132-139.
-Mesadghi, M., 1998. Range and Range Management in Iran, Astan Qods Publication, 259 p.
-Miles, P. H., Wilkinson, N. S. and McDowell, L. R., 2001., Analysis of mineral for animal nutrition research. Department of animal science. University of Florida, Gainesville, USA. Nutrients meet elk requirement?. Journal of Western North American Naturalist, 65:516-527.
-Mobin, S., 1985. Iranian herbs. Flora of Plants. 664p.
-Motamedi, C. and Alilu, F., 2013. Effect of climatic factors on forage production of rangeland species of Khoi pasture. Second National Conference on Climate Change and its Impact on Agriculture and Environment, Urmia, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of West Azerbaijan Province.
-Mozaffarian, V., 2000. Flora of Yazd province. Yazd Publishing. 472 p.
-Oddy, V. H., Robards, G. E. and Low, S. G., 1983., Prediction of In-vivo Dry Matter Digestibility from the Fiber and Nitrogen Content of a Feed, In Feed Information and Animal Production.
-Pregitzer, K. S. and King, J. S., 2005. Effects of soil temperature on nutrient uptake. Journal of Ecological Studies. 181: 277-310.
-Raei, F., Ghorbani Nohooji, M., Habibi, M. and Ashoori, N., 2014. Antibacterial Activity of Alcoholic Extracts of Two Clematis L. (Ranunculaceae) Species from Iran. Journal of Medicine Plants, 13(49):39-45. Pp.
-Rahimi, S., Mosleh Arani, A., Rashtian, A., Hakimi Meybodi, M. H. and Ahmadi, M., 2017. Effect of Phonological and Soil phenological growth on forage quality of Ochradenus ochradeni (Case Study: Abarkuh - Yazd Province). Journal of Range, 11(2): 233-245.
-Rashtian, A. and Mesadghi, M., 2013. Forage quality of important species of rangelands in central steppe region of Iran (Case study: Nodoushan rangeland of Yazd province). Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 20 (2): 272-284.
-Razmjoo, Kh., Khodaeian, N., Razzazi, A. and Askari, E., 2009. Breaking Seed Dormancy of Clematis ispahanica Bioss. a Medicinal Plant of Iran. Journal of Seed Technology, 31(1):101-107. Pp.
-Rechinger, K. H., 1982. Flora Iranica.N.150, Academishe Druk.u.Verlag sustalt Gratz.pp. 439-440.
-Roelofs, J. G. M., Bobbink, R., Brouwer, E. and De Graaf, M. C. C., 1996. Restoration ecology of aquatic and terrestrial vegetation on noncalcareous sandy soils in The Netherlands. Journal of Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 45: 517-541.
-Sabeti, H. A., 1976. Iranian trees and shrubs, Tehran Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Organization, 810 p.
-Sedaghat Boroujeni, L., Eslami, M. H., Ghasemi Pirbalouti, A. and Molavi, H., 2013. Phytochemical analysis of essential oil of Thymus carmanicus floral vein, Myrtus leaves and fruits of Heracleum lasiopetalum. Iranian Journal of Herbal Medicine, 4 (2): 101-108.
-Sheydayi, M., Habibi, M., Azizian, D. and Khatamzaz, M., 2009. Cytology and palynology of the Clematis L.species (Ranunculaceae) in Iran. Journal of Acta Botanica Croatica, 68 (1):67–77. Pp.
-Suttle, F.N., 2010. Mineral nutrition of livestock, 4 th Edition. Midlothian CABI International, Wallingford, UK.
Talebian Masoudi, A. and Mir Davoudi Akhavan, H., 2012. Determination and comparison of nutritional value and preference value of four species of Passionate rangelands in the Meghan Desert region of Arak. Abstract Articles of the 5th Rangeland and Commodity Conference of Iran, Borujerd, 5p.
-Tinya, F., Mihk, B., rialigeti, S., Mag, Z. and dor, P., 2009. A comparison of three indirect methods for estimating understory light at different spatial scales in temperate mixed forests. Journal of Community Ecology 10: 81–90.
-Tisdale, S. L., Nelson, W. L., Beaton, J. D. and Havlin, J. L., 1999. Soil fertility and fertilizers. 6th ed., Charles Stewart, New Jersey.
-Zarezadeh, A., Mirokali, S. M. And Mirhosseini, A., 2007. Introduction of Flora, Liveliness and Geographic Distribution of valley Dam Gahan Mehriz (Yazd Province). Journal of Research and Development in Natural Resources, 1 (74): 129-137.