بررسی خصوصیات اکولوژیکی و کیفیت علوفه گیاه Clematis ispahanica در استان‌های فارس و یزد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، علوم مرتع، گروه مدیریت مرتع، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه مدیریت مرتع، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

3 استاد، گروه مدیریت مرتع، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

4 استاد، گروه باغبانی دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، ایران

5 استادیارپژوهش، مرکز تحقیقات گیاهان دارویی، پژوهشکده گیاهان دارویی جهاد دانشگاهی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

کلماتیس اصفهانی (Clematis ispahanica) از گونه‌های خوشخوراک کمیاب و در حال انقراض کشور ایران می‌باشد. در این تحقیق پراکنش این گونه در مراتع شهرستان‌های بوانات و مهریز واقع در استان‌های فارس و یزد مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. به منظور نمونه‌برداری از پوشش گیاهی، مناطق مورد مطالعه طبقه‌بندی شد و سپس با استفاده از روش تصادفی-سیستماتیک 30 پلات 2×3 متر مربعی در مناطق کلید مستقرگردید. نمونه‌برداری به دلیل خشبی بودن سایر اندام‌های گیاه، فقط از برگ‌های آن با 5 تکرار و ثبت گونه‌های همراه انجام شد. نمونه‌های خاک از عمق 30-0 سانتی‌متری پلات‌ها (بر اساس عمق ریشه‌داونی) برداشت گردید. از آزمون t مستقل جهت مقایسه خصوصیات شیمیایی خاک دو منطقه استفاده شد. به منظور تعیین مؤثرترین مؤلفه‌های تأثیرگذار بر خصوصیات خاک دو منطقه از روش تجزیهٔ مؤلفه‌های اصلی (PCA) استفاده شد. از طرح فاکتوریل جهت بررسی اثر مرحله فنولوژیکی، منطقه و اثر متقابل منطقه×مرحلهٔ فنولوژیکی بر روی شاخص‌های کیفیت علوفه (CP، DMD، ME و ADF) استفاده شد. سپس با استفاده از طرح کاملاً تصادفی چگونگی اثر متقابل منطقه × مرحلهٔ فنولوژیکی بر روی کیفیت علوفه بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد که واقعیت انتشار و بهترین الگوی پراکنش این گونه گیاهی، دامنه‌های شمالی و توپوگرافی نسبتاً مسطح می‌باشد. این گونه گیاهی در خاک‌های غیرشور (2Ec<)، بافت‌های شنی- لومی، لومی- شنی و شنی، با مقدار اسیدیته 9/8-6/8، کربن آلی 7/0% -4/0%، ازت 13/0%-09/0%، فسفر1/22-9/ 13 پی پی ام، کربنات کلسیم 59%-42%، و پتاسیم 45/2-2 میلی گرم در لیتر رشد و پراکنش دارد. نتایج PCA نشان داد که کربن آلی (OC)، هدایت الکتریکی (EC) و اسیدیته خاک (pH) مؤثرترین مولفه‌های تأثیرگذار خاک دو منطقه بشمار می‌آیند. با توجه به نتایج به‌دست آمده، شاخص‌های کیفیت علوفه در مراحل رشد رویشی و گلدهی، در منطقهٔ بوانات بطور معناداری بیشتر از منطقه مهریز بود اما در مرحله بذردهی شاخص‌های مورد مطالعه،در منطقهٔ مهریز بطور معناداری بالاتر بود. نتایج همبستگی پیرسون نشانگر آن است که بین خصوصیات شیمیایی خاک و شاخص‌های کیفیت علوفه همبستگی معنی‌داری وجود  ندارد. بنابراین می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که اثر اقلیم بر کیفیت علوفه بیشتر از عوامل خاکی می‌باشد. بطورکلی می‌توان گفت که کیفیت علوفه بالای کلماتیس اصفهانی می‌تواند یکی از دلایل در معرض خطر انقراض بودن آن بشمار آید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Ecological Characteristics and Forage Quality of Clematis ispahanica in Fars and Yazd Provinces

نویسندگان [English]

  • Moharam Ashrafzadeh 1
  • Hamid Niknahad Gharemakher 2
  • Gholamali Heshmati 3
  • Mohammadjamal Saharkhiz 4
  • Majid Ghorbani Nohooji 5
1 Ph.D. Student of Rangeland Management, Faculty of Range and Watershed Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Natural Resources, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran
3 Professor, Faculty of Range and Watershed Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources, Iran
4 Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Iran
5 Assistant Professor, Medicinal Plants Research Center, Institute of Medicinal Plants, ACECR, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

   Clematis ispahanica is a rare, palatable, and endangered species of Iran. In this research, the distribution of this species was investigated in rangelands of Bavanat and Mehriz cities in Fars and Yazd provinces. For vegetation sampling, the study areas were classified and 30 plots (2 × 3 m) were established using random- systematic sampling method in key areas. Soil samples were taken at the depth of 0-30 cm (based on the depth of rooting). Independent t-test was used to compare soil chemical properties of the two regions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the most effective factors affecting soil properties of the two regions.The effect of phenological stage, area, and interaction between phenological stage and area on forage quality indices (CP, DMD, ME and ADF) was determined using a General Linear Model (GLM). The interaction of area × phenological stage on forage quality was investigated using a completely randomized design. The results demonstrated that the best spatial distribution pattern of this species was the northern slopes and relatively flat topography. Our results revealed that this species was found in non-saline soil (EC<2), sandy loam, loamy sand and sandy textures with a pH of 8.6-8.9, %0.4-%0.7 organic carbon, %0.09-% 0.13 nitrogen, 13.9-22.1 ppm phosphorus, %42-%59 calcium carbonate, and 2-2.45 mg/lit potassium. The results of PCA indicated that soil organic carbon (OC), electrical conductivity (EC), and acidity (pH) were the most effective components of the soil in two study areas. The results demonstrated that in the growth and flowering stages, forage quality indices of this species in Bavanat area were significantly higher than those of Mehriz area, but in the seeding stage, the study indices in Mehriz area was higher as compared with Bavanat area. No significant correlation was found between soil chemical properties and forage quality indices. Thus, it can be concluded that the effect of climate on forage quality indices is higher than edaphic factors. In general, it can be stated that the high forage quality of C. isphanica can be one of the reasons putting this species at risk of extinction.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bavanat
  • ecological characteristics
  • forage quality
  • Soil Chemical Factors
  • Mehriz
  • Clematis ispahanica

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