عنوان مقاله [English]
Livestock grazing is one of the most important factors effective on soil and vegetation structure and function. This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the grazing frequency and intensity in the rangeland in autumn 2015. The statistical population was the heads of tribal families in Kuhdasht city (1038 families), among which 310 heads of households were selected by the Cochran formula in stratified random sampling method. Data were collected by questionnaires and direct interview containing seven open questions and 17 closed questions. The validity and reliability of questionnaires were approved by a panel of experts and calculating the Cronbach alpha coefficient (above 0.85), respectively. Kendal correlation coefficient showed that there was a significant relationship between the grazing frequency with the annual mean income and cost of beneficiaries, annual calving of 10 livestock and distance between summer and winter rangelands. There was also a significant relationship between grazing intensity and the annual calving of 10 livestock. The results of Mann-Whitney test showed that there was a significant difference between the index of grazing frequency and intensity in winter rangeland. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test also showed that there was no significant difference between index of grazing frequency and intensity with utilization type of rangeland.
- Abdullahpoor, M., 1997. Why and How to provide the right areas for private Sector investment in rangelands, Proceedings of the First Seminar on Range and Rangeland Management in Iran, organization of Forests and Rangelands of the Country, Esfahan University of Technology. 100- 114 p.
- Abedi Sarvestani, A., 2014. An overview on early movement of nomadic tribes of Fars province. Journal of Geographical Research. 115: 27- 42.
- Ansari, N., Seyed Akhlaghi Shal, S. and Ghasemi, M., 2009. Determination of socio-economic factors on natural resources degradation of Iran. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 15(4): 508- 524.
- Arzani, H., Aslanpanjah, B., Tavili, A., Zare Chahooki, M. A. and Mohajeri, A. R., 2014. Short- term and Long- term grazing capacity of Pastures (Esfahan).Journal of Range, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 3: 1-20.
- Asadian, A., 1988. Animal husbandry System and its evolutions in Mazandran Forstests (Case Study: Mazandran Forests). Journal of Spike Magazine, 6: 64 -69.
- Azkia, M., 1997. Investigation evaluation of socio economic of range management plan in Fars and Kohkiloyeh va Boyer Ahmad, Tehran University Press, 26: 39- 45.
- Dormaar, J.F., Walter, D. and Willms, W. D., 1998. Effect of forty-four years of grazing on fescue grassland soils, Journal od. Range manage, 51:122-126.
- Eskandari, N., Alizadeh, A. and Mahdavi, P., 2008. Range managerوs policy in Iran. Forest, Rangeland and Watershed Management organization publication, Tehran, Iran, 185p.
- Fadaie, A., 1990. A new System for Pasture operation, Spike Magazine., 21: 15- 20.
- Fazilatty, A. and Hosseini, H., 1985. Rangelands of the Country and methods of management and Reclamation, Joint Committee on Rangeland Technical office and Agricultural Extension organization, Tehran.
- Ghondalli, K., 2001. Study and Comparison of Rangeland Forage Harvesting Methods and their Effects on Rangeland Areas of Semnan Province. (Case study: Rangelands of Semnan province). Master thesis, Imam Khomeini Higher Education Center.
- Humphrey, R.R., 1962. Range ecology, The Ronald Press co, New York, .234p.
- John, A.D.P. Kenneth, N. Wadell, A. Hugh, S. Russell, S., 2002. Long term grazing density impacts on soil compaction. United state department of Agriculture Service, 4: 13-18.
- Kardavani, P., 1995. Rangeland lssues and Solutions in Iran, Tehran Publications. 594p.
- Karimi, Gh. M., Mozaffari, S. and Nichbakht, M., 2009. Effect of Livestock and rangeland management on Vegetation changes, (Case study: Rangelands of Kohkiloyeh and Boyer Ahmad province), Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 16: 353- 361.
- Karimian, A., 2009. Investigation and evaluation of grazing systems designed for pasture designs (Case study: Rangeland Plans Prepared in Semnan Province Rangelands). Ph.D. Thesis, Gorgan university of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 185p.
- Lemaire, G., Wilkins, R. and Hodgson, 2005. Challenges for grassland Science: managing research priorities. Agric. Ecosys. Environ. 108: 99- 108.
- Mcmecken, C. P., 1952. Interdependendce of grassland and Livestock in agricultural Production. Proceedings of the sixth Hnternational Grassland congress, Pennsylvania 149 – 161.
- Mehrabi, A. H., 2000. Investigation of causes and Factors of Rangeland Destruction (Case Study: Hamadan Province). Master Thesis, Hamadan State Management Training Center.
- Mesdaghi, M. 2004. Range Management Iran, Imam Reza Press, 333p.
- Pazoki, M., 2001. Range, University of Tehran press, Iran.
- Salarian, F., Ghorbani, J. and Safaeian, N. A., 2013. Vegetation changes under exclosure and Livestock grazing in chahar Bagh rangelands in Golestan province. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 20(1): 115- 129.
- Seidi Shahivandi, M., Khaledi, SH., shakiba, R. and Mirbagheri, B., 2013. Climatic zoning of corn farming in Lorestan province using GIS techniques. Applied Geographical Science Research. 29: 195-214.
- Shakuri, M., Kalay, A. R. and Mirbaqari, B, 2014. The Floods lead to the destruction of rangelands and their causes. Olive Magazine, 30- 33.
- Stoddart, L. A. smith, A. D. and Box, T.W., 1975. Range Management, McGrawHill Book Company, New York, USA.
- Zare Chahooki, M. A., 2009. Analysis of the data in the study of natural resources with software SPSS. Publications of University of Tehran. 310p.