عنوان مقاله [English]
Clematis ispahanica Boiss is a rare species of Ranunculaceae family, which has forage and medicinal value. The seeds of this species have a very low germination percentage because of dormancy. Therefore, increasing their germination percentage by laboratory methods can be effective in restoring this plant. In the present study, considering the seed size of C. ispahanica , H2SO4 (96% ) for 5 , 10, 20 seconds , hot water (70 and 90 °C .) for 15 minutes, ethanol (96%) for 48hours, HCL ( for 2, 4 and 6 minutes), KNO3 (0.2%) for 48 hours, NaCl (50 milli molar) for 48hours, and scarification using sandpaper were tested to break the seed dormancy. Moreover, the seeds of this species were planted in different depths (1, 1.5 and 2.5 cm) and densities (30, 50 and 70 seeds per square meter). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 18 and by univariate analysis of variance and the Duncan test. According to the results, the most effective treatments to improve germination percentage and rate were KNO3, NaCl and scarification treatments. The depth of planting had a significant effect (P<0.05) on the germination percentage, but the density of planting had no significant effect on the germination percentage (P> 0.05). Due to the lack of use of chemicals in scarification using sandpaper treatment, it has an advantage over other effective treatments, recommended to break seed dormancy and increase its germination percentage. Considering the weight of a thousand seeds (3.73gr), 1.12 kg/ha seed (equivalent to 30 seeds per square meter) in the depth of 1.5 cm is proposed for the planting of this species in the study area.
- Aliero, B. L., 2004. Effect of sulphuric acid, mechanical scarification and wet heat treatment on germination of seeds of Parkia biolobosa. African Journal of Biotechnology, 3: 179-181.
- Amiri, S., 2014. Evaluation of morphological characteristics, pollination method and essential oil of Clematis ispahanica plant in conditions of stress and non-drought stress. Master's Degree of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, 40p.
- Aydin, I. and Uzun, F., 2001. The effects of some applications on germination rate of Gelemen Clover seeds gathered from natural vegetation in Samsun. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 4: 181-183.
- Azarnivand, H., 2006. A survey on the ecology and phytochemical properties of several medicinal plants Perovskia abrotanoides, Smirnovia iranica and Typha latifolia, a research project at the International Center for the Study of Coexistence with the Desert.
- Balyan, R. S. and Bhan, V. M., 1986. Germination of horse purslane (Trianthema portulacastrum) in relation to temperature, storage conditions, and seedling depth. Journal of Weed Science, 34: 513-515.
- Batak, I., Devic ,M., Giba ,Z., Grubisic ,D., Poff, K. L. and Konjevic, R., 2002. The effects of potassium nitrate and NO-donors on phytochrome A- and phytochrome B-specific induced germination of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. Journal of Seed Science Research, 12: 235-259.
- Benvenuti, S. and Macchia, M., 2001. Quantitative analysis of emergence of seedlings from buried weed seeds with increasing soil depth. Journal of Weed Science, 49: 528-535.
- Booth, D. T. and Sowa, S., 2001. Respiration in dormant and non-dormant bitterbrush seeds, Journal of Arid Environment, 48: 35-39.
- Boscaglia, B. and Setteb, B., 2001. Seed enhancement of the Satureja Montana. Journal of Seed Science and Technology, 29: 347-355.
- Çirak, C., Kevseroglu, K. and Ayan, A. K., 2007. Breaking of seed dormancy in a Turkish endemic Hypericum species: Hypericum aviculariifolium subsp. depilatum var. depilatum by light and some pre-soaking treatments. Journal of Arid Environment, 68: 159-164.
- Copeland, L. O. and McDonald, M. B., 1995. Principles of seed science and technology, 3rd ed., Chapman and Hall, New York. P.409.
- Esno, H., Solna H. and Sweden, M. 1996. Proceeding of the international seed testing association. Wageningen, the Netherlands. P. 92.
- Garcia del Moral, L. F., Rharrabti, Y., Villegas, D. and Royo, C., 2003. Evaluation of grain yield and its components in durum wheat under Mediterranean conditions: Journal of An antigenic approach. Agronomy, 95: 266-274.
- Gere, J., Karidzangundi, R., Ntuli, I., Nyamugure, E., Mudyiwa, S. M. and Kundhlande, A., 2015. Filing considerably breaks seed dormancy of Berchemia discolour Hemsley. African Journal of Plant Science, 9(6). 274-278.
- Gu, X. Y., Kianian, F. and Foley, M. E., 2004. Multiple loci and epistasis control genetic variation for seed dormancy in weedy rice (Oryza sativa). Journal of Genetics, 166:1503-1516.
- Gupta,V., 2003. Seed germination and dormancy breaking techniques for indigenous medicinal and aromatic plants. Medicinal and Aromatic Journal of Plant Science, 25: 402-407.
- Hartmann, H. T., Kester, D. E., Davies, F. J. and Geneve, R. L., 1997. Plant propagation: principles and practices. Sixth Edition. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. P.869
- Hermansen, A., Brodal, G. and Balvoll, G., 1999. Hot water treatments of carrot seeds, effects on seed-borne fungi, germination, emergence and yield. Journal of Seed Science and Technology, 27: 599- 613.
- International Seed Testing Association (ISTA), 2002. International rules for seed testing. Journal of Seed Science and Technology, 24:1-335.
- Jahantab, E, Mehrabi, A., Javdani, Z. and Ghafar, S., 2014. Assessment of herbal medicine in province and district of Bowyer-Ahmad/Iran. International Journal of Agriculture Crop Sciences, 7 (5):279-292.
- Jeavons, R. A. and Jarvis, B. C., 1984. The breaking of dormancy in Hazel seed by pretreatment with ethanol and mercuric chloride. Journal of New Phytologist, 96: 551-554.
- Johny Ghorban, M., 1988. Collection and identification of some native plants of Isfahan and Chaharmahal Bakhtiari and their application in green spaces (volumes 1 and 2). Graduate Degree in Horticulture, Isfahan University of Technology.
- Johny Gorban, M., 1999. Check the proliferation of Clematis ispahanica Boiss through cuttings. Journal of Research and Development, 44 (3): 25-22.
- Koohpayeh, A., Ghasemi Pirbalooti., A., Yazdanpanah Ravari, M. M., Pour Mohseni Nasab, A. and Arjomand, D., 2011. Study the ethno-veterinary of medicinal plants in Kerman province, Iran. Journal of Herbal Drugs, 2(3): 211-216.
- López, R., 2005. Under-investing in public goods: evidence, causes and consequences for agricultural development, equity and the environment. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 32 (S): 211-224.
- Maguire, J. D. and Overland, A., 1959. Laboratory germination of seed of weedy and native plants. Washington Agricultural Experiment Station Circular, 349. 15 pp.
- Maleki Farahani, S., Hajibarat, Z. and Hajibarat, Z, 2014. Effect of different treatments on breaking dormancy of Teucrium chamaedrys L. Seed. Journal of Medicinal Plants and By-products, 1: 63-67.
- Mandujano, M. C., Montana, C. and RojasArechiga, M., 2005. Breaking seed dormancy in Opuntia rastrera from the Chihuahuan desert. Journal of Arid Environment, 62: 15-21.
- Mobin, S., 1985. Iranian herbs. Flora of vascular plants. Volume 3, 664p.
- Moradi, A., Sharifzadeh, F., Tavakol Afshari, R. and Moali Amiri, R., 2010. Seed priming effects on germination and seedling growth of tall wheat grass (Agropyron elongatum) under control and drought stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Rangeland, 3(4): 462-473.
- Mortazayi, M., 2016. Investigating the effect of priming and seed priming treatments of Atriplex leucoclada on germination indices under non-living stresses during seed storage period. Master's thesis on campus of agriculture and natural resources of Tehran University.
- Mozaffarian, V., 2000. Flora of Yazd province. Press Yazd. 472 p.
- Nadjafi, F., Bannayan, M., Tabrizi, L. and Rastgoo, M., 2006. Seed germination and dormancy breaking techniques for Ferula gummosa and Teucrium polium. Journal of Arid Environment, 64: 542-547.
- Naseri, B. And Tabari Kocheksarayi, M., 2014. Effect of gibberellic acid and layering on seed dormancy breaking Acer campestre. Jungle and wood production, Iranian Journal of Natural resource, 68(2): 419-428.
- Norouzi Haroni, N., Tabari Kochaksaraei, M. and Sadati, S. E., 2014. Effect of halopriming on dormancy breaking and improvement of germination traits of Judas tree (Cercis Siliquastrum L.) Seeds. Iranian Journal of Wood and Forest Science and Technology, 21(2): 85-104.
- Olmez, Z., Yahyaoglu, Z., Temel, F. and Gokturk, A., 2008, Effects of some pretreatments on germination of bladder-senna (Colutea armena Boiss. and Huet.) and smoke-tree (Cotinus coggygria Scop.) seeds. Journal of Environmental Biology, 29(3), 319-323.
- Razmjoo, K. H., Khodaeian, N., Razzazi, A. and Askari, E., 2009. Breaking seed dormancy of Clematis ispahanica Bioss. A Medicinal Plant of Iran. Journal of Seed Technology, 31(1):101-107.
- Rehman, S., Loescher, R. N. and Harris, P. J. C., 1999. Dormancy breaking and germination of Accacia saliciina seeds. Journal of Seed Science and Technology, 27: 553-557.
- Saberi, M. and Tavili, A., 2010. Evaluation deferent priming treatments influences on Puccinellia distans germination characteristics. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 17 (1): 51-59.
- Sabeti, H. A., 1976. Iranian trees and shrubs, Tehran agricultural and natural resources research organization Press, 810 p.
- Safaian, R. and Azarnivand, H., 2010. The effect of some treatments on seed dormancy breaking and germination of Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 17 (2): 331-339.
- Scott, S. J., Jones, R. A. and Williams, W. A., 1984. Review of data analysis method for seed germination. Journal of Crop Science, 24: 1192-1199.
- Sheydayi, M., Habibi, M., Azizian, D. and Khatamzaz, M., 2009. Cytology and palynology of the Clematis L.species (Ranunculaceae) in Iran. Journal Acta Botanica Croatica, 68 (1):67–77. Pp.
- Sivritepe, N., Sivritepe, H. O. and Eris, A., 2003. The effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in melon seedlings grown under saline conditions. Journal of Scientia Horticulture, 97(3-4): 229-237.
- Talebi, S. and Nabavi Kalat, S. M., 2015. The effects of hydropriming and osmopriming on germination characteristics of Nigella sativa L. under Salt Stress. Iranian Journal of Seed Research, 2(1): 119-126.
- Taylorson, R. B. and Hendricks, S. B., 1979. Overcoming dormancy in seeds with ethanol and other anesthetics. Journal of Planta, 145: 507-510.
- Uniyal, S. K., Awasthi, A. and Rawat, G. S., 2002. Current status and distribution of commercially exploited medicinal and aromatic plants in upper Gori Valley, Kumaon Himalaya, Uttaranchal. Journal of Current Science, 82: 1246-1252.
- Zarekia, S., Jafari, A. A., Zandi Esfahan, E. and Fallah Hosseini, L., 2013. Study on germination of some perennial herbaceous Astragalu. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 20 (1): 88-100.
- Zarezadeh, A., Mirvakili, S. M. and Mirhossaini, A., 2007. Introduction to the flora, Life form and plant geographical distribution of Darrah Damgahan in Mehriz (Yazd province). Iranian Journal of Pajouhesh and Sazandegi, 74: 129-137.