بررسی شکست خواب، عمق و تراکم بهینه کاشت بذر کلماتیس اصفهانی (Clematis ispahanica) (مطالعه موردی: شهرستان بوانات، استان فارس)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم مرتع گروه مدیریت مرتع دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 استادیار، گروه مدیریت مرتع، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

3 استاد، گروه باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، ایران

4 استادیارپژوهش، مرکز تحقیقات گیاهان دارویی، پژوهشکده گیاهان دارویی جهاد دانشگاهی، کرج، ایران

5 استاد، گروه مدیریت مرتع، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

چکیده

کلماتیس اصفهانی (Boiss Clematis ispahanica) گونه‌ کمیابی از تیره آلاله (Ranunculaceae) است که دارای ارزش علوفه‌ای و دارویی می‌باشد. بذرهای این گونه گیاهی دارای خواب بوده و جوانه‌زنی بسیار کمی دارند، لذا افزایش درصد جوانه‌زنی بذرها توسط روش‌های آزمایشگاهی می‌تواند در احیای این گیاه مؤثر باشد. در این تحقیق، با توجه به اندازه ریز بذر گیاه کلماتیس، برای شکستن خواب بذرهای این گیاه از تیمارهای اسید سولفوریک 95 % (به مدت 5، 10 و 20 ثانیه) ، آب داغ (70 و 90 درجه سانتی‌گراد به مدت 15 دقیقه)، اتانول 96% (به مدت 48 ساعت)، اسید کلریدریک (به مدت 2، 4 و 6 دقیقه)، نیترات پتاسیم 2% ( به مدت 48ساعت)، کلرید سدیم 50 میلی مولار (به مدت 48 ساعت) و خراش‌دهی با استفاده از کاغذ سمباده استفاده شد. کاشت بذر این گونه در عمق‌های مختلف (1، 5/1 و 5/2 سانتی‌متر) و تراکم‌های مختلف (30، 50 و 70 عدد بذر در متر مربع) نیز، در مزرعه انجام شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزار SPSS نسخه 18 و از طریق تجزیه‌ واریانس یکطرفه (ANOVA) و آزمون دانکن انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که تیمارهای کلرید سدیم، نیترات پتاسیم و خراش‌دهی اثرگذارترین تیمارها در بهبود درصد و سرعت جوانه‌زنی بذرهای کلماتیس اصفهانی می‌باشند. عمق کاشت اثر معنی‌داری (05/0P<) بر درصد جوانه‌زنی بذر داشت اما تراکم کاشت اثر معنی‌داری بر درصد جوانه‌زنی بذر نداشت. تیمار خراش‌دهی با استفاده از کاغذ سمباده با توجه به عدم استفاده از مواد شیمیایی در آن نسبت به تیمارهای موثر دیگر مزیت داشته و جهت شکستن خواب بذرهای این گونه گیاهی توصیه می‌شود. مقدار12/1 کیلوگرم در هکتار (معادل 30 عدد بذر در هر متر مربع) با توجه به وزن هزاردانه بذر (73/3 گرم)، در عمق 5/1 سانتی‌متری جهت کشت بذر این گونه گیاهی در منطقه مورد مطالعه پیشنهاد می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Breaking Seed Dormancy of Clematis ispahanica and Its Optimum Planting Depth and Density (Case study: Bavanat, Fars Province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Moharam Ashrafzadeh 1
  • Hamid Niknahad 2
  • Mohammadjamal Saharkhiz 3
  • Majid ghorbani Nohouji 4
  • Gholamali Heshmati 5
1 PhD Student in Rangeland Management, Department of Rangeland Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources,Gorgan. Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Rangeland Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources,Gorgan. Iran
3 Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Medicinal Plants Research Center, Institute of Medicinal Plants, ACECR, Karaj, Iran
5 Professor, Department of Rangeland Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources,Gorgan. Iran
چکیده [English]

Clematis ispahanica Boiss is a rare species of Ranunculaceae family, which has forage and medicinal value. The seeds of this species have a very low germination percentage because of dormancy. Therefore, increasing their germination percentage by laboratory methods can be effective in restoring this plant. In the present study, considering the seed size of C. ispahanica , H2SO4 (96% ) for 5 , 10, 20 seconds , hot water (70 and 90 °C .) for 15 minutes, ethanol (96%) for 48hours, HCL ( for 2, 4 and 6 minutes), KNO3 (0.2%) for 48 hours, NaCl (50 milli molar) for 48hours, and scarification using sandpaper were tested to break the seed dormancy.  Moreover, the seeds of this species were planted in different depths (1, 1.5 and 2.5 cm) and densities (30, 50 and 70 seeds per square meter). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 18 and by univariate analysis of variance and the Duncan test. According to the results, the most effective treatments to improve germination percentage and rate were KNO3, NaCl and scarification treatments. The depth of planting had a significant effect (P<0.05) on the germination percentage, but the density of planting had no significant effect on the germination percentage (P> 0.05). Due to the lack of use of chemicals in scarification using sandpaper treatment, it has an advantage over other effective treatments, recommended to break seed dormancy and increase its germination percentage. Considering the weight of a thousand seeds (3.73gr), 1.12 kg/ha seed (equivalent to 30 seeds per square meter) in the depth of 1.5 cm is proposed for the planting of this species in the study area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • seed
  • germination
  • Clematis ispahanica

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