بررسی اولویت‌‌بندی عوامل مؤثر بر مدیریت چرا با استفاده از روش AHP در مراتع عشایری استان فارس

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان فارس، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی ، فارس، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه مرتع، آبخیزداری و شیلات، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران،

چکیده

تخریب مراتع، اعمال چرای بی‌رویه و ضعف مدیریت صحیح چرا از موضوعاتی است که تعادل اکوسیستم‌های مرتعی را به هم زده و بقای زندگی شبانی را به مخاطره انداخته است. بنابراین شناخت عوامل مؤثر بر مدیریت چرا به عنوان قدم اولیه برای بهبود و تبدیل این وضعیت به حالت پایدار ضرورت دارد. این تحقیق در زیست‌بوم عشایر طایفه‌ی شش بلوکی از ایل قشقایی در استان‌های فارس و بوشهر در سال‌ 1395 انجام گرفت. روش جمع‌آوری اطلاعات در این تحقیق، کتابخانه‌ای و میدانی (پرسش‌نامه و مصاحبه) بود. از 40 بهره‌بردار خبره و 25 کارشناس خبره مرتبط با موضوع تحقیق، پرسش‌نامه ویژه مقایسات زوجی تکمیل گردید. برای تعیین و مقایسه وزن و اولویت عوامل مؤثر بر مؤلفه‌های مدیریت چرا از دو دیدگاه بهره­برداران و کارشناسان از روش‌های توصیفی و آماری ناپارامتریک استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که در اکثر موارد بین دو دیدگاه از نظر وزن‌دهی و اولویت‌بندی به عوامل مؤثر بر مؤلفه‌های مدیریت چرا تفاوت معنی‌داری وجود دارد(01/0p<). همچنین در بسیاری از موارد، تفاوت وزنی بسیار بالا بوده و در برخی از موارد، میزان تفاوت نظرات بین دو گروه پاسخگو ناچیز می‌باشد. برای تلفیق دو دیدگاه بهره‌برداران و کارشناسان از روش AHPبهره‌گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که در این روش ، اشتراک دو دیدگاه 6/72 درصد می‌باشد. حمایت دولت از طریق تامین علوفه و آب در خشکسالی‌ها، هماهنگی کارشناسان با بهره‌برداران در تعیین تقویم کوچ، جلوگیری از تغییر کاربری اراضی مرتعی در ییلاق و تثبیت ایل راه‌ها و به ثبت رساندن حق ارضی عشایر جهت انجام کوچ از جمله پیشنهادهای اجرایی این تحقیق جهت ساماندهی کوچ زود هنگام به مراتع ییلاقی و بهبود مدیریت چرا می‌باشند.   

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Prioritizing of affecting factors on grazing management using AHP method in nomad’s rangelands at Fars Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Mohammadreza Habibyian 1
  • Hosein Barani 2
1 Research Assistant Professor, Natural Resources Research Department, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Fars, Iran
2 Associated professor, Range Management Faculty, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran
چکیده [English]

Rangeland degradation, intensive grazing and the weakness of accurate grazing management are considered as issues which have distributed rangeland ecosystems’ equilibrium as well as have made dangerous in pastoralists’ life survival. Therefore, it is important to recognize of affecting factors on grazing management as a primary step for improving and altering this condition into a sustainable state. This study was conducted in Shesh-Boloki clan of Qashqai tribe at Fars and Bushehr provinces in 2016. In the study, data collection was done using literature review and field work (questionnaire and interview). Paired comparison questionnaire (AHP questionnaire) was filled out among 40 knowledgeable beneficiary and 25 experts. Descriptive and nonparametric statistical methods were used for determining and comparing weights and priority of affecting factors on grazing management items based on exploiters and experts’ point of view. The result indicated that there was a significant difference between two points of views in terms of weights and priority of affecting factors on grazing management (p<0.01). Also, in case of many items, the weight difference was dramatically high and in some cases this amount was non-significant. AHP method was used with the aim of integration of exploiters and expert’s points of view. The results also showed that this method, overlapping in two views were 72.4%. Government support through providing forage and water in drought years, being accordance experts and exploiters about migration calendar, preventing of land-use change in upland rangelands, stabilization of nomads’ roads and registration of land rights for nomads to migrate are considered as executive recommendations of this study with the aim of organizing the early migration to upland rangelands and improving grazing management.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grazing management
  • migration calendar
  • AHP
  • Shesh-Boloki
  • Ecosystem
  • rangeland exploiters
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