تعیین پتانسیل تغذیه‌ای چهار گونه گیاه (Arctium lappa، Verbascum thapsus ، Althaea officinalis و Ferula hermonis) در مراتع خراسان رضوی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی


1 استادیار، گروه علوم دامی، مجتمع آموزش عالی تربت‌جام، ایران

2 استاد، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران


آگاهی از ارزش تغذیه‌ای گیاهان مختلف مرتعی، می‌تواند به دامداران در تهیه یک جیره مناسب، کمک شایان توجهی بکند، از این‌رو آزمایشاتی با هدف تعیین ترکیبات شیمیایی، مینرالی، تولید گاز و سایر پارامترهای تخمیری چهار گونه گیاه مرتعی قابل رویش در منطقه تربت‌جام (شامل Arctium lappa، Verbascum thapsus ، Althaea officinalis و Ferula hermonis) انجام شد. گیاهان فوق در زمان قبل از گلدهی به‌صورت تصادفی جمع‌آوری شدند. دامنه پروتئین‌خام (87/22-85/15 درصد)، خاکستر (10/16-27/8 درصد)، چربی‌خام (75/5-85/0 درصد)، الیاف نامحلول در شوینده خنثی (53/37-27/19 درصد)، الیاف نامحلول در شوینده اسیدی (53/26-53/15 درصد)، لیگنین نامحلول در شوینده اسیدی (43/5-83/3 درصد) و فیبرخام (74/21-49/12 درصد) برای چهار گونه گیاهی متفاوت بود. بیشترین مقدار کلسیم (26/12 گرم/کیلوگرم ماده‌خشک) مربوط به Althaea officinalisبود. فراسنجه‌های تولید گاز و سایر پارامترهای تخمیری در بین گیاهان نیز متفاوت بود به‌طوری‌که بیشترین مقدار تولید گاز در زمان‌های 12، 24 و 48 ساعت انکوباسیون (به‌ترتیب 32/47، 64/61، 21/71 میلی‌لیتر)، پتانسیل تولید گاز (70/75 میلی‌لیتر)، تجزیه‌پذیری ماده‌خشک و ماده‌آلی (به‌ترتیب 99/82 و 60/84 درصد)، انرژی قابل متابولیسم (66/10 مگاژول در کیلوگرم ماده‌خشک)، انرژی خالص شیردهی (51/6 مگاژول در کیلوگرم ماده‌خشک) و کل اسیدهای چرب فرار (62/36 میلی‌مول در لیتر) در Verbascum thapsusمشاهده شد. یک ضریب همبستگی منفی بین گاز تولید شده در زمان 24 ساعت انکوباسیون با چربی‌خام، پروتئین‌خام و نیتروژن آمونیاکی مشاهده شد. مقایسه فراسنجه‌های تولید گاز و پارامترهای تخمیری و تجزیه‌پذیری در بین گیاهان مورد مطالعه حاکی از آن بود که گونه Verbascum thapsus از پتانسیل تغذیه‌ای بالاتری برخوردار می‌باشد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Nutritional potential of four plant species (Arctium lappa, Verbascum thapsus, Althaea officinalis and Ferula hermonis) in Razavi Khorasan rangelands

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Kazemi 1
  • Reza valizadeh 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, Higher Education Complex of Torbat-e Jam, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

    Awareness of the nutritional value of different rangeland plants can help animal husbandries to prepare a suitable diet; hence some experiments were conducted to determine the chemical compositions, minerals, gas production and other fermentation parameters of four range plants that can be grown in Torbat-e Jam (including Arctium lappa, Verbascum thapsus, Althaea officinalis and Ferula hermonis), Iran. The above plants were randomly collected before flowering. The range of crude protein (15.85- 22.87%), ash (8.27-16.10%), crude fat (0.85-5.75%), neutral detergent fiber (19.27-37.53%), acid detergent fiber (15.53-26.53%), acid detergent lignin (3.83-5.43%), and crude fiber (12.49-21.74%) was different among four plant species. The highest amount of calcium (12.26 g/kg DM) was related to Althaea officinalis. The parameters of gas production and other fermentation parameters were also different among the plants, so that the maximum amount of gas production after 12, 24, and 48 h incubation (47.32, 61.64, 71.21 ml, respectively), potential gas production (75.70 ml), dry matter and organic matter digestibility (82.99 and 84.60 %, respectively), metabolizable energy (10.66 MJ/kg DM), net energy for lactation (6.51 MJ/kg DM), and total volatile fatty acids (36.62 mmol/L) were found in Verbascum olympicum. There was a negative correlation coefficient between the gas produced after 24 h incubation with ether extract, crude protein, and ammonia nitrogen. Comparison of the gas production, fermentation and degradability parameters among studied plants indicated that Verbascum thapsus had higher potential nutritive value.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Range plants
  • nutritional value
  • Diet
  • Razavi Khorasan

-  Ahmadi, R., Khoshokhan, M. and Tabatabaaeifar, Z.S., 2014. Comparision pf the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Althea officinlis root and glibenclamide on blood glucose level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal, 8(5): 68-73.

-  Al-Snafi, A. E., 2013. The pharmaceutical importance of Althaea officinalis and Althaea rosea: A review. International Journal of PharmTech Research, 5(3): 1378-1385.

-  ANKOM Technology., 2005. Method for determining acid detergent lignin in Beakers beakers method 8.

-  ANKOM Technology., 2006a. Acid detergent fibre in feeds-filter bag technique method 12.

-  ANKOM Technology., 2006b. Neutral detergent fiber in feeds-filter bag technique method 6.

-  AOAC., 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edtion. Association of official analytical chemists. Arlington, Virginia, USA.

-  AOAC., 1999. Official methods of analysis. 16th Edition. Association of official analytical chemists, Washington, DC, USA.

-  Arshadullah, M., Anwar, M. and Azim, A., 2009. Evaluation of various exotic grasses in semi-arid conditions of Pabbi Hills, Kharian Range. The Journal of animal and Plant Sciences, 19(2): 85-89.

-  Arzani, H. and Naseri, K. L., 2009. Livestock feeding on pasture (Translated). 2th Edition. University of Tehran Press, Iran. 299p.

-  Arzani, H., Basiri, M., Khatibi, F. and Ghorbani, G., 2006. Nutritive value of some Zagros mountain rangeland species. Journal of Small Ruminant Research, 65: 128-135.

-  Arzani, H., Motamedi, J., Aghajanlu, F., Rashtvand, S. and Zareii, A., 2017. Forage quality of important species of Qazvin Alamut mountainous rangelands and Zanjan Badamstane. Journal of Range and Watershed Management, 69(4): 805-818.

-  Atrian, P. 2009. Sheep nutrition. 1st Ed. Aeej Press, Iran, 348p.

-  Azizov, U. M., Khadzhieva, U. A., Rakhimov, D. A., Mezhlumyan, L. G. and Salikhov, S. L., 2012. Chemical composition of dry extract of Arctium lappa roots. Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 47(6):1038-1039.

-  Barnett, A. J. G. and Reid, R., 1957. Studies on the production of volatile fatty acids from grass in artificial rumen. 1. volatile fatty acids production from fresh grasses. The Journal of Agriculture Science (Cambridge), 48: 315-321.

-  Bhatta, R., Baruah, L., Saravanan, M., Suresh, K. P. and Sampath, K. T., 2012. Effect of medicinal and aromatic plants on rumen fermentation, protozoa population and methanogenesis invitro. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 97(3): 446-456.

-  Bradley, P., 2006. British herbal compendium: a handbook of scientific information of widely used plant drugs. Volume 2. British Herbal Medicine Association, Bournemouth, UK, 409p.

-  Bunglavan, S. J., Valli, C., Ramachandran, M. and Balakrishnan, V., 2010. Effect of supplementation of herbal extracts on methanogenesis in ruminants. Journal of Livestock Research for Rural Development, 22 (11).

-  Chen, C. S., Wang, S. M. and Chang Y. K., 2001. Climatic factors, acid detergent fiber, natural detergent fiber and crude protein contents in digitgrass. 632-634. In: Proceeding of the XIX International Grassland Congress, Brazil.

-  Cone, J. W. and Van Gelder, A. H., 1999. Influence of protein fermentation on gas production profiles. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 76(3-4): 251-264.

-  Danet, C. E. and Borcean, I., 2007. Medicinal plants from the nera garges used in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Agricultural and Veterinary University of the Banat, Timisoara, Romania, 205-208.

-  Dashti, M., Jafari, A. A., Zarif Ketabi, H. and Saghafi Khadem, F., 2016. Investigation on yield and quality traits of three varieties of Elymus hispidus in different phenological stages under dryland farming. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 22(4): 683-694.

-  Davidovic, V., Todorovic, M. J., Stojanovic, B. and Relic, R., 2012. Plant usage in protecting the farm animal health. Journal of Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry, 28 (1): 87-98.

-  Desideri, D., Meli, M. A. and Roselli, C., 2010. Determination of essential and non-essential elements in some medicinal plants by polarised X ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDPXRF). Microchemical Journal, 95: 174-180.

-  De-yong, L., Qing-xiang, M., Zhen-liang, C., Li-wen, H. and Li-ping, R., 2014. Effects of different plant extracts on rumen fermentation in vitro by using gas production technique. Journal of China Agricultural University, 2014-02: 143-149.

-  Doreau, M., Chilliard, Y., Bauchart, D. and Michalet-Doreau, B., 1991. Influence of different fat supplements on digestibility and ruminal digestion in cows. Journal of Annales de Zootechnie, 40: 19-30.

-  Getachew, G., Robinson, P. H., DePeters, E. J. and Taylor, S. J., 2004. Relationships between chemical composition, dry matter degradation and in vitro gas production of several ruminant feeds. Journal of Animal Feed Science and Technology, 111(1-4): 57-71.

-  Heshmati, G. A., Baghani, M. and Bazrafshan, O., 2007. Comparison of nutritional values of 11 rangeland species in eastern part of Golestan province. Animal Science Journal (Pajouhesh and Sazandegi), 73: 90-95.

-  Jafari, M., Javadi, M. R., Hamadanian, F. and Ghorbani, M., 2008. Saltland pastures: (Translated). University of Tehran Press, Iran, 269p.

-  Kazemi, M., Tahmasbi, A. M. Valizadeh, R., Naserian A. A. and Moheghi, M. M., 2009. Assessment of nutritive value of four dominant weed species in range of Khorasan distict of Iran by in vitro and in situ techniques. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 8(11): 2286-2290.

-  Kazemi, M., Tahmasbi, A. M., Valizadeh, R., Naserian, A. A., Afshari, R. and Sonei, A., 2013. Effect of phosalone as an organophosphate pesticide with different levels of bentonite on fermentation parameters of a TMR ration according to in vitro condition. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 5(3): 201-209.

-  Khamidova, D. A., Pulatova, D. K. and Urmanova, F. F., 2009. Integration of education, Science, and industry in pharmacy. Proceedings of the Scientific-Practical Conference, Tashkent, 219p.

-  Kolivand, M. and Kafilzadeh, F., 2015. Effect of addition of four pasture grasses (Matricaria chamomilla, Urtica dioica, Gundelia tournefortii and Taraxacum officinale) on in vitro digestibility and methane production of oat hay. Animal Science Journal (Pajouhesh and Sazandegi), 107: 207-210.

-  Komolong, M. K., Barber, D. G. and McNeill, D. M., 2001. Post-ruminal protein supply and N retention of weaner sheep fed on a basal diet of lucerne hay (Medicago sativa) with increasing levels of quebracho tannins. Journal of Animal Feed Science and Technology, 92(1-2): 59-72.

-  Lans, C., Turner, N., Khan, T., Brauer, G. and Boepple, W., 2007. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 23: 11.

-  Larbi, A., Smith, J. W., Kurdi, I. O., Adeknle, I. O., Raji, A. M. and Ladipo, D. O., 1998. Chemical composition, rumen degradation, and gas production characteristics of some multipurpose fodder trees and shrubs during wet and dry seasons in the humid tropics. Journal of Animal Feed Science and Technology, 72: 81-96.

-  Lin, S. C., Lin, C. H., Lin, C. C., Lin, Y. H., Chen, C. F., Chen, I. C. and Wang L. Y., 2002 Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride. Journal of Biomedical Science, 9: 401-409.

-  Markovic, J.P., Strbanovic, R.T., Terzic, D.V., Djokic, D.J., Simic, A.S., Vrvic, M.M. and Zivkovic, S.P., 2012. Changes in lignin structure with maturation of alfalfa leaf and stem in relation to ruminants nutritrion. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7: 257-264.

-  Mauricio, R. M., Owen, E., Mould, F. L., Givens, I., Theodorou, M. K., France, J., Davies, D. R. and Dhanoa, M. S., 2001. Comparison of bovine rumen liquor and bovine faeces as inoculum for an in vitro gas production technique for evaluating forages. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 89: 33-48.

-  Menke, K. H. and Steingass, H., 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Journal of Animal Research and Development, 28: 7-55.

-  Moheghi, M. M., Tahmasbi, A. M., Valizadeh, R., Naserian, A. A., kazemi, M. and Eskandary Torbaghan, A., 2018. Animal Science Journal (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi), 117: 241-256.

-  NRC., 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 7th Edition. National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA, 381p.

-  NRC., 2007. Nutrient requirements of small ruminants: Sheep, goats, cervids, and New World Camelids. 6th Edition. Washington: National academy press, Washington, D.C., USA, 384p.

-  Ørskov, E. R. and McDonald, I., 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 92: 499-503.

-  Pasandi, M., Hosseini, S. A. and Kavian, A., 2017. Forage quality of important halophytes in saline and alkaline rangelands of Golestan province at two phenological stages. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 24(3): 537-546.

-  Patra, A. K., Kamra, D. N. and Agarwal, N., 2006. Effect of plant extracts on in vitro methanogenesis, enzyme activities and fermentation of feed in rumen liquor of buffalo. Journal of Animal Feed Science and Technology, 128 (3-4): 276-291.

-  Pearson, R. A., Archibald, R. F. and Muirhead, R. H., 2006. A comparison of the effect of forage type and level of feeding on the digestibility and gastrointestinal mean retention time of dry forage given to cattle, sheep, ponies and donkeys. British Journal of Nutrition, 95: 88-98.

-  Riasat, M., Jafari, A. A. and Nasirzadeh, A., 2017. Evaluation of yield and quality traits in some Elymus hispidus Var. villosus populations under irrigated condition in Hoseinabad station, Fars province. Iran. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 23(4): 704-718.

-  Richardson, F. D., 2004. Simulation models of rangelands production systems (simple and complex). Ph.D. thesis in Applied Mathematices, University of Cape Town, South Africa, 320p.

-  Sachan, J., Kumar, R., Kumar, V. and Roy, D., 2013. Screening of condiments and spices as potential feed additives using in vitro gas production test. Indian Veterinary Journal, 90 (3): 125-126.

-  SAS Institute INC., 2002. Sas user’s Guide: statistics. Statistical Analysis Systems Institute Inc. Cary NC.

-  Shawrang, P., Sadeghi, A. A. and Vatankhah, H., 2013. Chemical composition, ruminal dry matter, crude protein and cell wall degradation kinetics of pasture forages dominant in the west provinces of Iran. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 3(2): 237-241.

-  Sniffen, C. J., O’Connor, J. D., Van Soest, P. J., Fox, D. G. and Russell, J. B., 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets. II. Carbohydrate and protein availability. Journal of Animal Science, 70(11): 3562-3577.

-  Turker, A. U. and Gurel, E., 2005. Common Mullein (Verbascum Thapsus L.): recent advances in research. Journal of Phytotherapy Research, 19: 733-739.

-  Turker, A. U., Camper, N. D. and Gurel, E., 2003. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of a saponin from Verbascum thapsus L. Journal of Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment, 18: 54-59.

-  Van Soest, P. J., 1982. Nutritional ecology of the ruminant, ruminant metabolism, fermentation and the chemistry of forages and plant fibers. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 137p.

-  Wanapat, M., 2000. Rumen manipulation to increase the efficient use of local feed resources and productivity of ruminants in the tropics. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, Supplement 13B: 59-67.

-  Zaboli, M., Ghanbari, A., Zaboli, J. and Noori, S., 2010. Forage quality of Aeluropus lagopoides and A. littoralis species affected by phonological stages in hamoon wetland, Iran. Journal of Rangeland,  4(3): 404-411.

-  Zandi Esfahan, E., Jafari, A. A. and Mirakhorli, R., 2017. Studying the effects of growth stages on forage quality of two halophytes in Garmsar. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 24(2): 464-473.

-  Zanoli, P., Rivasi, M., Zavatti, M., Brusiani, F., Vezzalini, F. and Baraldi, M., 2005. Activity of single components of Ferula hermonis on male rat sexual behavior. International Journal of Impotence Research, 17: 513-518.