بررسی رفتار چرایی گوسفند نژاد شال در مراتع کوهستانی پلور- استان مازندران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار پژوهش، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی مازندران، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ساری، ایران

چکیده

مراتع از  گونه‌های مختلف گیاهی با خصوصیات رویشی و فنولوژی متفاوت تشکیل شده که ارزش چرایی معینی دارند.  از این روی دام چرا کننده نیز بر حسب آن از خود رفتار چرایی خاصی بروز  می‌دهد.  بدون شناخت این رفتارها،  برنامه‌ریزی و مدیریت مرتع و دام مقدور نمی‌باشد. برای پی بردن به  رفتار چرایی دام، سایت نیک در مراتع کوهستانی مازندران در منطقه پلور انتخاب گردید. رفتار چرایی دام مانند مسافت طی شده در روز، سرعت حرکت دام، زمان صرف شده برای حرکت، استراحت و چرا با استفاده از  GPS مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. زمان بررسی از سال 1389-1386 بوده است. نتایج نشان می‌دهد که رفتار چرایی دام در ماههای مختلف فصل چرا متفاوت می‌باشد. رفتار چرایی دام در سالهای مختلف دارای اختلاف معنی‌دار نمی‌باشد. بیشترین میزان حرکت دام (دقیقه)در کلاس شیب 30-15 درصد و کمترین آن در کلاس شیب بیشتر از 60 درصد می‌باشد.  به طور میانگین، دام  در ماه اول فصل چرا مسافت 14.84 کیلومتر، در ماه دوم مسافت 30/13 کیلومتر و در ماه سوم مسافت 38/12 کیلومتر را طی  می‌نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Study of livestock behavior of sheep (Shal Race) in Polour Mountain Rangelands

نویسنده [English]

  • Hasan Ghelichnia
چکیده [English]

Rangelands consist of different plant species with different vegetative and phenological characteristics that have a certain grazing value. Accordingly, livestock reveals particular grazing behavior. Without knowing these behaviors, range and livestock planning and management is not feasible. To understand the livestock behavior, The Niak site was selected in the mountain rangelands of Mazandaran in the Plour region. Livestock grazing behavior such as the distance traveled daily, the speed of the livestock, the time spent moving, resting and grazing were investigated using GPS. The study period was from 2007 to 2010. The results showed that livestock grazing behavior was different in different months of the season. Livestock grazing behavior showed no significant differences in different years. The maximum livestock movement (min) was recorded in slope class of 15- 30% and the lowest in slope class more than 60%. On average, the distance traveled by livestock in the first, second and third month of the grazing season was calculated to be 14.84 km, 13.30 km, and 12.38 km, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grazing behavior
  • Sheep
  • Mountain Rangeland
  • Polour
- Abaye, A. O., Allen, V. G. and Fontenot, J. P., 1993. Influence of grazing sheep and cattle together and

separately on animal performance and forage quality. Journal of Animal Science, 72: 1013.

- Agouridis, T. S., Stombaugh, S. R., Workman, B. K. Koostra, D. R. and Edwards, E. S., 2002. Suitability of a GPS collar for  grazing studies. Transactions of the Asae, 47(4): 1321−1329.

- Ahmadi, A. and Peiravi, M., 2010. Effects of animal age and different months of grazing season on grazing behaviour and diet selection of Zandi ewes grazing in steppe rangelands (case study: Yekke bagh, Qom). IranianJournal of Range and Desert Research, 16(4): 536-550.

- Animut, G., Goetsch, A., Aiken, G., Puchala, R., Detweiler, G., Krehbiel, C., Merkel, R., Sahlu, T., Dawson, L., Johnson, Z. and Gipson, T., 2005. Performance and forage selectivity by sheep and goats co-grazing grass/forbs pastures at three stocking rates. Journal of Small Ruminant Research, 59: 203-215.

- Arzani, H., 2009. Forage quality and daily requirement of grazing animal. University of Tehran Press, Iran, 354p.

- Arzani, H., Zohdi, M., Fisher, E., Zaheddi Amiri, G. H., Nikkhah, A. and Wester, D., 2004. Phenological effects on forage quality of five grass species. Journal of Range management, 57: 624-630.

- Baghestani, M. N., 2003. An investigation on the effects of short term grazing intensity of goats on different plant characteristics and animal function in steppe rangeland of Yazd, Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Iran, 214p.

- Dorothee, P., Jurgen, D., Stephan, L. and Werner, H., 2007. Site use of grazing cattle and sheep in a large-scale pasture landscape: A GPS/GIS assessment. Journal of Applied Animal Behavior Science, 111: 54-67.

-Dudzínski, M. L. and Arnold, G.W., 1979. Factors influencing the grazing behavior of sheep in a

Mediterranean climate. Journal of Applied Animal Ethology, 5: 125-144.

- Hussain ,F. and Durrant, M. J., 2009. Seasonal avallability, palatability and animal preferences of forage plants in Harboi arid rangeland, Kalat, Pakistan.Pakistan Journal Journal of Botany., 41(2): 539-554.

-Low, W. A., Tweedie, R. L., Edwards, C. B. H., Hodder, R. M., Malafant, K. W. J. and Cunningham, R. B.,1981. The influence of environment on daily maintenance behavior of free ranging shorthorn cows in central Australian. Applied Animal Ethology, 7: 39-56.

-Lyons, R. K. and Machen, R. V., 2002. Interpreting grazing behavior. Texas agriculture extention service. Texas A & M system, 6p.

- Maria Lúcia, P. L., Berchielli, T. T., Leme, P. R., Nogueira, R. J. and Graça Pinheiro, M., 2004. Grazing time and milk production of crossbred cows in a rotational area of Elephant grass and Tanzania grass. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 16: 46-64.

- Moen, R. A., Pastor, J. Cohen, Y. and Schwartz, C. C., 1996. Effects of moose movement and habitat use on GPS collar performance. Journal of Wildlife Management,60(3): 659−668.

- Provenza, F. D., 1997. Feeding behavior of herbivores in response to plant toxicants. Handbook of Plant and Fungal Toxicants, 16: 231-242.

- Semenye, P. P., 1981. Grazing behaviour of Maasai cattle. Proceedings of the Animal Production Society of Kenya, 13, 28p.

- Santos.S. A., C. Costa, L. V. A. S., Chalita, A., Pott, A. and A. G. and Orti. Z., 2000. Grazing behavior and activity patterns by free-grazing cattle in the Pantanal region. Embrapa Pantanal, C. P., 109, Corumbá, MS, Brasil, 79320-900, sasantos@cpap.embrapa.br

-Schlecht, E., Hiernaux, P., Kadaoure, I., Hulsebusch, C. and Mahler, F., 2006. A spatiotemporal analysis of forage availability and grazing and excretion behaviour of herded and free grazing cattle, sheep and goats in Western Niger, Agriculture. Ecosystems and Environment, 113 : 226–242.

-Solanki ,G. S., 2000. Grazing behaviour and foraging strategy of goats in semi-arid region in India. Tropical Ecology, 41(2): 155-159

- Stoddart, L. A., Smith, A. D. and Box, T. W., 1975. Range management. McGraw-Hill, Inc. USA.

- Swain, N., Maitra, D., Singh, M. and Acharya, R., 1986. Determination of foot steps, and influence of physical environment on grazing distance traveled by sheep and goats. Indian Journal of Animal Science, 56: 614-616.

Turner, L., Udall, M., Larson, B. and Shearer, S., 2000. Monitoring cattle behavior and pasture use with GPS and GIS1. Canadian Journal Animal Science, 80: 405-413.