تغییرات ترکیب گیاهی در شدت های مختلف چرای دام در جنگل بلوط دالاب استان ایلام

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهشی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان مرکزی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اراک، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه جنگلداری و اقتصاد جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 استاد گروه جنگلداری و اقتصاد جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

چکیده

چرای دام یکی از مهمترین عوامل در فراهم نمودن شرایط محیطی برای تغییر در ترکیب گونه‌ای، ساختار و کارکردهای اکوسیستم‌ها می‌باشد. جنگل‌های غرب ایران نیز به عنوان یکی از اکوسیستم‌های ارزشمند از این تهدید مستثی نبوده و ضروری است جنبه‌های مختلف این پدیده در این اکوسیستم‌ها مورد مطالعه قرار گیرد. بدین منظور اطلاعات مربوط به پوشش گیاهی، خاک و سایر متغییرهای محیطی در کف جنگل دالاب در استان ایلام با استفاده از 53 قطعه نمونه (16×16 متری) به روش تصادفی در شدت‌های مختلف چرای دام برداشت شد. برای طبقه‌بندی گروه گونه‌های اکولوژیک از روش آنالیز دو طرفه گونه‌های شاخص، برای تعیین گونه‌های معرف هر کلاس از آنالیز گونه‌های شاخص و برای مشخص کردن ارتباط گروه‌های گیاهی با عوامل مختلف مورد بررسی از روش رسته‌بندی تحلیل تطبیقی متعارفیاستفاده گردید. نتایج نشان داد که چرای دام در کنار فاکتورهای توپوگرافی، خاک و نور رسیده به کف جنگل به عنوان تاثیر گذارترین عوامل بر ترکیب گیاهی شناخته شدند. چرای دام با بیان 2/11 درصد از تغییرات موجود در گونه‌های گیاهی، بیشترین تاثیر را در ایجاد تغییر در فلور کف جنگل داشت. افزایش چرای دام عمدتاً باعث افزایش فراوانی گونه‌های غیر خوشخوراک و مقاوم به چرای دام و کوبیدگی خاک و همچنین افزایش گونه‌های یکساله مانند Bromus tectorum، Picnomon acarna، Minuartia picta ،  Rochelia disperma، Holesteum umbellatum، Lophocloa phloridesو Valerianellavesicaria شده است. این گونه‌ها بر اساس تراکم، حضور و منابع موجود به عنوان مهاجم شناخته شدند. از طرفی به نظر می‌رسد گسترش گونه‌های خوشخوراکی نظیر  Vicia sativa،Trifolium physodes، Lens cyanea،Lathyrusinconspicaus در سایت چرای متوسط، مبین نقش چرای متعادل دام در حفظ مناسب ترکیب گونه‌های گیاهی درمراتع است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Plant composition changes along a livestock grazing intensity gradient in Daalaab Park oak woodland of Ilam

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamidreza Mirdavoudi 1
  • Vahid Etemad 2
  • Mohammadreza Mohajer 3
  • Ghavamoddin Zahedi Amiri 3
1 Department of Natural Resources, Markazi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Arak, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

    Grazing is one of the most important factors in providing environmental conditions for change in species composition, structure and function of ecosystems. West oak woodlands of Iran as a valuable ecosystem are not immune from this threat. Therefore, it is essential to study the various aspects of this phenomenon in these ecosystems. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of relative grazing intensity on vegetation characteristics in an oak forest dominated by Quercus brantii. The research was conducted in Dalab Park, located in Ilam province, west of Iran. Information of vegetation, soil and other environmental variables were collected from 53 sample plots (16×16 m) using the random sampling method in various disturbances classes. Two-way indicator species analysis was used for classification of the ecological groups. Indicator species analysis was used to determine indicator species in each class and canonical correspondence analysis to identify the relationship between factors and the plant groups studied. The results showed that the grazing as well as soil, topographic factors and the light reaching to the forest floor was identified as the most influential factors on plant composition. Grazing explained the highest percentage of variance (11.2%) in floristic composition and caused an increased frequency of non-palatable species and resistant species to grazing and soil compaction as well as increasing of annuals including Bromus tectorum, Picnomon acarna, Minuartia picta, Rochelia disperma, Holesteum umbellatum, Lophocloa phlorides, and Valerianella vesicaria. These species were identified as invasive species based on density, abundance, and available resources. On the other hand, it seems that the spread of palatable species such as Vicia sativa,Trifolium physodes, Lens cyanea, and Lathyrus inconspicaus in the moderate grazing site indicates the role of balanced livestock grazing in maintaining the proper species composition in rangelands.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • grazing intensity
  • Invader species
  • Iran
  • Oak woodlands
  • ordination
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