تحلیل سرمایة اجتماعی درون‌گروهی در راستای مدیریت مشارکتی مناطق خشک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه احیاء مناطق خشک و کوهستانی، دانشکده منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد بیابان زدایی، گروه احیاء مناطق خشک و کوهستانی، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد آبخیزداری، گروه احیاء مناطق خشک و کوهستانی، دانشکده منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

چکیده

سرمایة اجتماعی یکی از ارکان اصلی درمدیریت مشارکتی و توسعة پایدار محلی محسوب می‌گردد. هدف از پژوهش حاضر ارزیابی سرمایة اجتماعی درون‌گروهی در دو بازة زمانی قبل و بعد از اجرای پروژة مشارکتی با عنوان پروژة بین‌المللی احیای اراضی جنگلی و تخریب یافته در مناطق خشک­­RFLDL­، در روستای ده‌رضا از توابع شهرستان ریگان استان کرمان می‌باشد. جامعة آماری در این مطالعه اعضای گروه‌های توسعة روستایی است که 133 نفر در غالب 9 گروه را شامل می‌شوند. در این تحقیق میزان روابط اعتماد و مشارکت در شبکة ذینفعان با استفاده از پرسشنامه‌های تحلیل شبکه‌ای و بر‌اساس مشاهدة مستقیم و مصاحبه با کلیة ذینفعان و بر‌اساس سنجش شاخص‌های تحلیل شبکه‌ای مانند تراکم، تمرکز، دوسویگی، انتقال‌یافتگی و میانگین فاصلة ژئودزیک در دو مرحلة قبل و بعد از اجرای پروژة بین‌المللی احیای اراضی جنگلی و تخریب یافته مورد‌بررسی قرار گرفته‌اند. نتایج در این بررسی نشان می‌دهد که میزان اعتماد، مشارکت و به نوعی سرمایة اجتماعی در قبل از اجرای پروژه در حد متوسط بوده که پس از اجرای این پروژه میزان این مؤلفه‌ها افزایش یافته است. سرعت گردش و تبادل اعتمادو مشارکت بین افراد بعد از اجرای طرح نسبت به قبل از اجرای آن افزایش‌یافته و اجرای این پروژه، اتحاد و یگانگی بین افراد را نیز تقویت کرده است. در نهایت با توجه به نتایج به‌دست آمده می‌توان بیان کرد که به‌دنبال اجرای این پروژه میزان سرمایة اجتماعی درون‌گروهی شبکه افزایش یافته و در واقع می‌توان استدلال نمود که پس از اجرای پروژه، تحقق مدیریت مشارکتی در منطقه به شکل مطلوب صورت گرفته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of bonding social capital towards co-management of dry lands

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Ghorbani 1
  • Leila Avazpour 2
  • Majid Rahimi 3
  • Homa Mousavi 2
  • Behnaz Esmaeli 2
1 Associate Professor, Department of Reclamation of Arid and Mountainous Regions, Natural Resources Faculty, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Former M.Sc. Student in Combat Desertification, Department of Reclamation of Arid and Mountainous Regions, Natural Resources Faculty, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 M.Sc. in Watershed Management, Department of Reclamation of Arid and Mountainous Regions, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

     Social capital is a prerequisite of co-management and local sustainable development. Present study makes an attempt to evaluate bonding social capital pre and post RFLDL project implementation in Deh-e-Reza village in Reagan County of Kerman province. Statistical population of this study consists of rural development groups’ members totaling 133 persons in 9 groups. The level of trust and collaboration ties of the beneficiaries’ network were examined through network analysis questionnaires, direct observation, and an interview with all beneficiaries based on network indicators including density, reciprocity, transitivity, and average Geodesic distance both prior to and post RFLDL project implementation. It was found out that the level of trust, collaboration, and social capital was moderate pre project implementation but there was an increase in these components following project implementation. Trust and collaboration exchange speed as well enhanced following project implementation and solidarity and unity increased on the whole. Last but not least, it can be claimed that implementation of this project boosted bonding social capital and co-management was established in the region.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • social capital
  • network analysis
  • co-management
  • rural development groups
  • Reagan County
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