تأثیر شدت‌های مختلف چرایی بر تنوع و ترکیب جوامع گیاهی (مطالعه موردی: مراتع نیمه‌استپی بلغویی- علویجه اصفهان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای علوم مرتع، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، ایران

2 استادیار دانشکده منابع طبیعی دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

3 استادیار، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

با توجه به نقش و اهمیت چرای دام بر تغییرات پوشش‌گیاهی، این تحقیق برای مطالعه تأثیر شدت‌های مختلف چرای دام بر پارامترهای پوشش‌ گیاهی مراتع شهرستان علویجه در استان اصفهان انجام شد بدین‌منظور سه مکان مرتعی با شدت‌های مختلف چرایی سبک، متوسط و سنگین و با شرایط اکولوژیک مشابه انتخاب شد. چهار ترانسکت (دو ترانسکت موازی و دو ترانسکت عمود بر شیب عمومی منطقه) به طول 100 متر در هر منطقه مستقر و در راستای هر ترانسکت، 10 پلات به روش تصادفی- سیستماتیک مستقر و در هر پلات نام علمی گونه‌ها، کلاس خوشخوراکی، تراکم و درصد پوشش تاجی گیاهان ثبت گردید. شاخص‌های غنای مارگالف، تنوع و یکنواختی شانون-واینر و نیز منحنی فراوانی رتبه‌ای محاسبه شد. به‌منظور مقایسه شاخص‌های پوشش گیاهی، از آزمون تحلیل واریانس یک‌طرفه (5% = α) استفاده گردید. شاخص‌های تراکم و پوشش تاجی در شرایط چرای سبک و متوسط بیشتر از چرای سنگین می‌باشد و بین هر سه مکان مرتعی اختلاف معنی‌داری وجود دارد (05/0 > P). ترکیب گونه‌ای دو مکان چرای سبک و متوسط به‌طور عمده شامل گیاهان کلاس ІІ و به‌ترتیب برابر با 72 و 54 درصد می‌باشد. در شرایط چرای سنگین، غالب بودن با گونه‌های کلاس ІІІ می‌باشد که برابر با 69 درصد محاسبه گردید. بین مناطق چرای سبک و سنگین، از لحاظ شاخص‌های تنوع، غنا و یکنواختی اختلاف معنی‌داری وجود دارد (05/0 > P). دو منطقه چرای سبک و متوسط، از مدل لوگ نرمال که نشان‌دهنده جوامعی پایدار می‌باشند تبعیت می‌کند، در حالی‌که منطقه چرای سنگین از مدل سری لوگ که بیانگر جوامعی شکننده است، تبعیت می‌کند. نتایج تحلیل فزونگی (RDA) نشان داد که سه تیپ ‌گیاهی با ترکیب گیاهی متفاوت، منطبق با سطوح مختلف چرای دام وجود دارد. به‌طور کلی، چرای سبک و متوسط از نظر پوشش‌گیاهی در شرایط ایده‌آلی قرار دارند، بنابراین با توجه به اینکه مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک، اکوسیستم‌های حساس و شکننده‌ای هستند باید در مدیریت چرا این مناطق ملاحظات بیولوژیکی مورد توجه قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of various grazing intensities on vegetation diversity and composition in semi- steppe rangelands (Case study: Alavigeh- Isfahan)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Mehrdad Kazemi 1
  • Hamidreza karimzadeh 2
  • Hosein Bashari 3
  • Mostafa Tarkesh Esfahani 3
1 Ph.D. Student, College of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Iran
2 Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan university of Technology, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, College of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Iran
چکیده [English]

Considering the role and importance of grazing on vegetation structural changes, thisstudy aimed to assess the effects of various grazing intensities on vegetation parameters in semi-steppe rangelands of Alavigeh, Isfahan. Three rangeland locations with relatively homogeneous ecological conditions and various long-term grazing intensities (light, moderate and heavy) were selected. Four perpendicular transects with 100 meters length (two parallel transects and tow transects perpendicular to the general slope of the area) were established in each site and vegetation parameters including vegetation cover, density and palatability class of the species were recorded in 10 plots. The Margalef richness index and Shannon-Vainer diversity and evenness indices of the plots were calculated. A one way ANOVA was used to compare the vegetation parameters in sites with various long term grazing intensities. According to the results, the sites with low and moderate grazing intensities had higher plant density and vegetation cover compared with site grazed heavily and these vegetation indices varied significantly between the sites (P< 0.05). The species composition of the light and moderate grazing areas mainly included class II species with 72% and 54%, respectively. The heavily grazed site was dominated by the species with low grazing palatability (69%). The plant diversity, richness and evenness indices of the sites with low and moderate grazing intensities varied significantly (p < 0.05). The log normal was the best fitted parametric model among species abundance models for the low and moderate grazed sites, indicating a stable vegetation community. Log series were fitted to diversity data in the heavy grazed site, indicating an unstable vegetation community. RDA analysis revealed that there was a distinct grazing gradient and three vegetation zones could be clearly separated with various vegetation compositions. Although vegetation condition is appropriate in the sites with low grazing intensity, also the vegetation regeneration can benefit from moderate grazing intensity. Biological considerations are required in the management of rangeland ecosystems in arid and semi-arid ecosystems due to the fragile nature of these ecosystems. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alavigeh
  • diversity
  • grazing intensities
  • redundancy analysis
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