بررسی راهکارهای تقویت توان اقتصادی دامداران با تکیه بر تحلیل اقتصادی دامداری سنتی (مطالعه موردی: مراتع ییلاقی سجادرود- استان مازندران)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد مرتع، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه مرتع، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه مرتع، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران

4 دانشیار، گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکده مهندسی زراعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران

چکیده

دامداری سنتی متکی به مراتع بیشترین سهم را در بهره‌برداری از مراتع کشور دارد. با وجود آنکه بیش از نیمی از علوفه مورد نیاز دام‌ها از منابعی غیر از چرا در مراتع تأمین می‌گردد، بیشتر دامداران در ایران بر این عقیده هستند که دامداری سنتی دارای توجیه اقتصادی نمی‌باشد. ازاین‌رو، این تحقیق را می‌توان گامی در جهت تحلیل اقتصادی فعالیت دامداری دانست که فصلی از سال را متکی به علوفه مراتع ییلاقی حوزه آبخیز سجادرود بابل می‌باشند. اطلاعات مربوط به ارزیابی اقتصادی به روش پیمایشی و از طریق پرسش‌نامه تکمیل گردید. جامعه آماری شامل 3 سامان عرفی دارای طرح و 3 سامان عرفی فاقد طرح مرتع‌داری بود. با استفاده از فرمول کوکران تعداد نمونه لازم برای انجام این پژوهش (82 دامدار) انتخاب گردید. در این بررسی سود خالص بهره‌برداران از فعالیت‌های دامداری و سایر عوامل اجتماعی و اقتصادی مؤثر بر درآمد دامداران مطالعه شد. نتایج حکایت از آن داشت که نسبت منفعت به هزینه فعالیت دامداری سنتی در منطقه 41/1 و دارای توجیه بوده است ولی اختلاف سودآوری بین مراتع دارای طرح و فاقد طرح و همچنین بین دامداران مورد بررسی با تعداد دام کم، متوسط و زیاد معنی‌دار نشد. میانگین سود خالص به ازای هر رأس دام برای هر دامدار در مراتع دارای طرح و فاقد طرح به‌ترتیب 63/29477 و 22130 ریال در سال پایه 1395 محاسبه شد که این اختلاف از نظر آماری معنی‌دار نشد. با توجه به نتایج پیشنهاد شد، بهترین راهکار برای تقویت توان اقتصادی دامداران، تأمین علوفه یارانه‌ای، اعطای تسهیلات بانکی کم‌بهره، تغییر نژاد دام و تشکیل شرکت‌های تعاونی مرتع‌داری می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Strategies for Strengthening Pastoralists' Economic Power Based on Economic Analysis of Traditional Animal Husbandary (Case Study: Summer Rangelands of Sajjadoodh-Mazandaran Province Rangelands)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hosein Ahmadi Gotab 1
  • Shafagh Rastegar 2
  • ghodratollah heydari 3
  • Seyed Mojtaba Mojaverian 4
1 M.Sc. in Rangeland Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Rangeland Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Rangeland Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Agricultural Economy, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran
چکیده [English]

    Traditional animal husbandry has the highest share in the exploitation of the country rangelands. Although more than half of the forage required for livestock is supplied from sources other than grazing in rangelands, most pastoralists believe that traditional livestock husbandry is not economically justified in Iran. Therefore, the current study is a step towards economic analysis of animal husbandry activity, which is dependent on the forage of summer rangelands of Sajjadroodwatershed in Babol during a season of the year. Data related to economic analysis was completed based on a survey method and a questionnaire. The statistical population consisted of three allotments with range management plans and three allotments without any range plans. Using the Cochran formula, 82 ranchers were selected as needed samples for this research. In this study, the net profits of ranchers from livestock activities and other socio-economic factors affecting ranchers' income were investigated. The results showed that the profit/cost ratio of traditional husbandry activity was 1.41 and had economic justification. However, there were no significant differences between the profitability of the rangelands with and without plans and between the ranchers with small, medium and large numbers of livestock. In 2016, average net profits per head of each livestock in rangelands with and without plans were 29477.63 and 22130 Rials, respectively that were not statistically significant. According to the results, it was suggested that the best way to improve pastoralists' economic power was providing subsidized forage, low-interest banking facilities, changing in livestock breeding, and establishing pastoral cooperative companies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • economic analysis
  • traditional animal husbandry
  • livestock products
  • summer rangelands
-  Abunouri, A., 2006. Descriptive statistics and its application. Mazandaran University Press. 1st Edition. 384p.

-  Aggelopoulos, S., Soutsas, K., Pavloudi, A., Sinapis, E. and Petkou, D., 2009. Suggestions for reformation in sheep farms based on production cost. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment. 7 (3&4): 561-566.

-  Bakhshi Jahromi, A., 2007. The analysis of the production and income generation of nomads (case study: nomads of Darze, Hamun ecosystem, Jazmurian, Kahnuj City), Sixth Iranian Agriculture Economics Conference. Iran Agricultural Economics Association, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Mashad, 8-13 November: 1-12.

-  Baghestani Meibodi, N., 2003. Investigation of the short-term effects of different grazing grazing intensities on some vegetation characteristics and livestock performance in Steppe rangelands of Yazd. Rangeland Sciences. Tehran University. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Rangeland Management, Tehran University.

-  Bayat, N., Rastgar, A., Khorasani, M. A. and Gjanbarinasab, A., 2011. Recognition and analysis of factors affecting the recession of livestock economics in rural areas (case study: Parider and Mahdavie- Malayer City). Rural Research. 2(4): 153-181.

-  Bettencourt. E. M. V., Tilman, M., Henriques, P. D. S., Narciso, V., Leonor, M., Carvalho1, S. 2013. The economic and sociocultural role of livestock in the wellbeing of rural communities of Timor-Leste. Publishing the Center for Advanced Studies in Management and Economics (CEFAGE).

-  Butt. B., 2010. Seasonal space time dynamics of cattle behavior and mobility among Maasai pastoralists in semi-arid Kenya. Journal of Arid Environments. 74: 403-413.

-  Cochran, W. C., 1960. Sampling techniques, 200 p.

-  Comprehensive studies of Sajjadood watershed., 2000. Mazandaran Province Natural Resources Office.

-  Degen. A. A., 2007. Sheep and goat milk in pastoral societies. Small Ruminant Research Journal 68:7-19.

-  Dovie, D., Shackelton, Ch. and Witkowski, E. T. F., 2006. Valuation of communal area livestock benefits, rural livelihoods and related policy issues. Landuse Policy, 23(3): 260-271.

-  Eftekhari, H., Arzani, E., Zandi Esfahan and Alizadeh, E. 2016. Effect of range management plan on range condition (Case study: Zarandieh region, Markazi province). Iranian Journal of Rangeland and Desert Research. 23(2): 209-2018.

-  Forghani, H. and Iri, M., 2004. Investigating the productivity of traditional livestock breeding in dairy cattle in Golpayegan province. Quantitative Economy (Quarterly Journal of Economic Studies). 2(1): 51-62.

-  Fayaz, M., 2012. Comparison of economic performance of sheep and goat rangeland in Tehran province and Isfahan Province. Iranian Journal of Rangeland and Desert Research. 19(3): 432-442.

-  Ghanbari, Y. and Rasty, M., 2002. Study of the role of nomadic social and economic status in rangeland management. Iranian Journal of Rangeland and Desert Research, 9(30): 30-43.   

-  Green, B. T., Kevin D., Welch.m James A., Pfister., Carol G. Chitko-Mckown. and Gardner, D. R., 2014. Mitigation of larkspur poisoning on rangelands through the  selection of cattle. Rangelands, 36(1):10-15.

-  Haghian, A., Barani, H., Heshmati, Gh. A., Ghorbani, J. and Heidari, Gh. A., 2013. Investigation and monitoring of livestock and livestock activities in traditional livestock system based on rangelands in Baladeh-e-Mazandaran. Ph.D. Thesis in Rangeland Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Gorgan University of Agriculture sciences and Natural Resources.

-  Hashemi, A., 2010. Energy efficiency and financial benefit in traditional rangeland based husbandry system in Guilvan village of Khalkhal. Master's Thesis, Gorgan Agricultural and Natural Resources University,125p.

-  Kalantar Nistanaki, M., 2005. Study of reproductive traits and economic indices of sheep and goat flocks in Qom province. Second Sheep and Goat Research Seminar. Iran, 14-15 Desember: 165-168.

-  Kalantari, Kh., 2012. Processing and analyzing data in socio-economic research. Sharif, Tehran, 569p.

-  Koopahi, M., 2006. Principles of agricultural economics. Tehran University, Tehran, 561p.

-  Mohammadi, S. and  Barani, H., 2018. Socio-economic impact assessment of rangeland management plans in the city of Mashhad. Iranian Journal of Rangeland and Desert Research. 25(3): 556-565.

-  Mahdavi, M., 2001. Introduction to rural geography of Iran. Samt Publication. Tehran.

-  Hashemi, S. A., 2010. Calculation of the efficiency and profitability indicators of traditional livestock based on rangeland (Case study: Gilvan village of Khalkhal city), M.Sc. Thesis. Natural resources faculty. Gorgan University.

-  Mirnabi Baboli., S. S., 2006. Determine the minimum economic value of rangelands, M.Sc. Thesis. Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, 69p.

-  Morries. S. T., 2009. Economics of sheep production. Journal of Small Ruminant Research, 86(1-3): 59-62.

-  Niżnikowski, R., Strzelec, E. and Popielarczyk, D., 2006. Economics and profitability of sheep and goat production under new support regimes and market conditions in Central and Eastern Europe. Small Ruminant Research, 62(3): 159- 165.

-  Tanrivermis, H., and Bulbul, M., 2007. The profitability of animal husbandry activities on farm in dry farming areas and the interaction between crop production and animal husbandry: The case of Ankara province in Turkey. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics, 8(1): 59-78.

-  Zahraeifar, M., 2006. Investigating the economic and social effects of changing the traditional livestock system to the packages in Beshel and Sarkhkalah region of Savadkouh of Mazandaran. M.Sc. Thesis. Mazandaran University.

-  Vatankhah, M., Moradi, M., Nejati Javaromi, A., Miraei Ashtiani, S. R. and Vaez, R., 2005. The 2nd seminar on sheep and goat research in the country. Tehran, Iran.