شناسایی و بررسی تنوع گیاهان دارویی در مراتع کوهستانی عنبران اردبیل

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد مرتع‌داری، اداره کل منابع طبیعی و آبخیزداری اردبیل، اردبیل، ایران

2 دانشیار پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات مرتع، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

4 دانشجوی دکتری ژئومورفولوژی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

شناخت گیاهان دارویی، اندازه‌گیری ویژگی‌های ساختاری و شاخص‌های تنوع گونه‌ای آنها یکی از ملزومات اساسی به‌منظور تعیین شایستگی مراتع برای بهره‌برداری از گیاهان دارویی است. در این راستا، این پژوهش در مراتع کوهستانی عنبران انجام شد. برای این منظور، با کاربرد 320 پلات یک مترمربعی که با فاصله 10 متر از همدیگر در امتداد ترانسکت‌های 100 متری در 16 توده معرف مرتبط با تیپ‌های گیاهی مستقر شده بودند، از پوشش گیاهی آماربرداری شد و مقادیر شاخص‌های تنوع گونه‌ای در طبقات مختلف ارتفاعی و جهات جغرافیایی محاسبه گردید. بر مبنای نتایج، 16 گونه دارویی در ترکیب گیاهی پراکنش دارد که مقدار اهمیت نسبی آنها از 9/0 تا 59 درصد متغیر می‌باشد. بیشترین اهمیت نسبی مربوط به گونه‌های Verbascum erianthum، Cynodon dactylon و Acroptilon repens و کمترین اهمیت نسبی مربوط به گونه‌هایPapaver acrochaetum، Hyoscyamus arachnoideus، Iris falcifolia، Allium scabriscapum وMatricaria chamomilla می‌باشد. نتایج نشان داد مقادیر شاخص‌های تنوع گونه‌ای شانون- واینر گیاهان دارویی در طبقه ارتفاعی 1750-1500 متر و 2000-1750 متر به‌ترتیب 569/0 و 651/0 است که اختلاف معنی‌داری با همدیگر ندارند. مقدار شاخص مذکور در جهت‌های شمالی و جنوبی نیز برابر 691/0 و 511/0 است که جهت شمالی از مطلوبیت تنوع گونه‌ای بیشتری نسبت به جهت جنوبی برخوردار است. ازاین‌رو با توجه به دامنه تغییر مقادیر شاخص تنوع گونه‌ای شانون- واینر (5/4 – 0)، به نظر می‌رسد مراتع مورد بررسی از نظر تنوع گونه‌ای گیاهان دارویی، مطلوبیت خوبی نداشته باشند که ضرورت دارد با اعمال مدیریت مستقیم، نسبت به افزایش تنوع گونه‌ای اقدام نمود. یافته‌های این پژوهش می‌تواند به‌منظور مکان‌یابی رویشگاه‌های گیاهان دارویی برای حفاظت، بهره‌برداری، بذرگیری و تأمین بخشی از درآمد دامدارن مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification and evaluation of medicinal plants diversity in mountain rangelands of Anbaran, Ardabil province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Asad Sadeghpour 1
  • Javad Motamedi 2
  • Esmaeil Sheidai Karkaj 3
  • Mostafa ghanamijaber 4
1 M.Sc. in Range Management, Ardabil Bureau of Natural Resources and Watershed Management, Ardabil, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Rangeland Research Division, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Range and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
4 Ph.D. Student of Geomorphology, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Knowing medicinal plants, measuring structural features and their species diversity indices are of the essential requirements to determine the suitability of rangelands for the use of medicinal plants. In this regard, the research was carried out in the mountain rangelands of Anbaran. For this purpose, vegetation cover was measured using 320 plots of one square meter, with a distance of 10 meters from each other along 100-meter transects in 16 vegetation types, and the values of species diversity indices in different elevation classes and aspects were calculated. Based on the results, 16 medicinal species are distributed in the plant composition, with a relative importance varying from 0.9 to 59. The highest relative importance is related to Verbascum erianthum, Cynodon dactylon and Acroptilon repens, and the least belongs to Papaver acrochaetum, Hyoscyamus arachnoideus, Iris falcifolia, Allium scabriscapum and Matricaria chamomilla.The results showed that the values of the Shannon–Winear  in the altitudes of 1750-1500 meters and 1750-200 meters were 0.569 and 0.651, respectively, showing no significant difference with each other. The value of the index in the northern and southern directions is equal to 0.691 and 0.511, and the northern aspects are more favorable than the southern ones. Therefore, with regard to the range of Shannon–Winear index (0-4.5), it seems that the rangelands are not desirable for the species diversity of medicinal plants, which is necessary to increase species diversity with direct management. The findings of this study can be used to locate medicinal plants in order to protect, exploit, seed production and provide part of the livestock holder’s income.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Altitude
  • aspect
  • Medicinal plants
  • relative importance
  • species diversity
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