اثر توسعه رشد گیاه و تغییرات بارندگی بر مقادیر تولید گیاهان علوفه‌ای مرتعی مراتع نیمه‌استپی (مطالعه موردی: مراتع میانبند مشگین‌شهر)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهشی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اردبیل، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اردبیل، ایران

2 استادیار پژوهشی، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

     آگاهی از خصوصیات اکولوژیکی گیاهان و به‌تبع آن تغییرات تولید علوفه در طول دوره فصل چرای مرتع، برای مدیریت چرای دام ضروری می‌باشد. این مهم با تعیین رابطه بین اثر تغییرات بارندگی، توسعه رشد گیاهان و تولید علوفه در عرصه امکان‌پذیر است. به همین منظور اثر توسعه رشد گیاه و تغییرات بارندگی بر مقدار تولید علوفه در مراتع مشگین‌شهر به مدت چهار سال (1386 تا 1389) با روش قطع و توزین اندازه‌گیری شد. میزان بارندگی ماهانه منطقه در این فاصله زمانی نیز با استفاده از داده‌های ایستگاه هواشناسی سینوپتیک مشگین‌شهر بر اساس بارندگی ماهانه، مقادیر تجمعی باران در زمستان و بهار در هر سال مورد محاسبه قرار گرفت. تجزیه‌وتحلیل آماری داده‌ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزارSAS  انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد از متوسط علوفه تولیدی مرتع در طی چهار سال، 95/28 درصد از Artemisia fragrans، 35/26 درصد از Kochia prostrate، 55/19 درصد از Stipa hohenackeriana، 77/4 درصد از Astragalus brachyodonutsو 38/20 درصد از سایر گونه‌ها بوده است. نتایج تجزیه واریانس داده‌های مربوط به میزان تولید گونه‌ها نشان داد که در بین سال‌های بررسی اختلاف معنی‌داری در سطح 1% خطا وجود داشت. به‌عبارتی تولید به تناسب تغییرات بارندگی و دما، متغیر است. از نظر پایداری (اثر متقابل سال × ماه) گونه‌های  Artemisia fragransو  Kochia prostrataجزو گونه‌های پایدار با تولید زیاد ولی Astragalus brachyodonutsوStipa hohenackeriana جزو گونه‌های پایدار با تولید کم بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of plant growth and precipitation changes on the rangeland production in semi-steppe areas (Case study: Mashkin-Shahr Rangeland)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Jaber Sharifi 1
  • Morteza Akbarzadeh 2
1 Assistant Professor, Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Ardabil, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Range Research Division, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

     Knowing the ecological characteristics of plants and consequently changes in forage production during the season of grazing for grazing management is essential. Therefore, understanding the annual and monthly production of different rangeland types is essential for efficient and effective forage management. Consequently, relationships between forage production and climatic variables should be considered. For this purpose, the annual forage production was measured in the research exclosure of Arshaq Site rangelands in Ardabil province during 2007-2010 by clipping and weighing method. The monthly rainfall in this period was calculated using Mashkin-Shahr synoptic station data and then the amount of cumulative rainfall in winter and spring of each year was calculated. Afterward, the relationship between production and winter and spring rainfall as well as rainfall of different months of winter and spring was studied separately. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS software. According to the results, the average forage production during four years was calculated of which 28.95% belonged to Artemisia fragrans, 26.35% to Kochia prostrate, 19.55% to Stipa hohenackeriana, 4.77% to Astragalus brachyodonuts and 20.38% to the other species. Analysis of variance showed that the production of species among years were significant (P<0.01). In terms of stability (interactions of year × month), Artemisia fragrans and Kochia prostrata were stable, with a high yield; however, Astragalus brachyodonuts and Stipa hohenackeriana were stable with a low yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • forage production
  • forage consumption
  • stable species
  • grazing season
  • Ardabil province
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