مطالعه رفتار چرای گوسفند در مراتع چشمه‌انجیر استان فارس

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات مرتع، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار پژوهشی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی فارس، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، شیراز، ایران

3 استادیار، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

4 دانشجوی دکترای مرتعداری، گروه احیاء مناطق خشک و کوهستانی، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

5 مربی، گروه علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

چکیده

     آگاهی از رفتار چرایی دام یکی از عوامل مؤثر در مدیریت مرتع می‌باشد. این تحقیق به‌منظور شناخت رفتار چرایی گوسفند در مراتع سایت چشمه انجیر استان فارس در طی سال‌های 1389-1386 انجام‌شده است. شاخص‌هایی که در این تحقیق مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند، شامل طول مسافت روزانه طی شده توسط دام، میانگین سرعت حرکت دام و مدت ‌زمان صرف شده برای چرا بودند. برای تعیین شاخص‌های ذکرشده از دستگاه موقعیت‌یاب جغرافیایی (GPS) استفاده گردید که با استفاده از کمربندی مخصوص به پشت یک میش 4 ساله بسته شد. بنابراین پس از شروع فعالیت چرایی در مرتع، GPS فعال‌ شده و بعد در پایان روز داده‌های آن با استفاده از مدتراک در محیط الویس (Ilwis) استخراج گردید. تجزیه ‌وتحلیل داده‌ها در قالب طرح بلوک کاملاً تصادفی با استفاده از نرم‌افزار SAS انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که در بین سال‌های مورد مطالعه صفات میانگین سرعت حرکت دام و طول مسافت روزانه طی شده توسط دام به‌ترتیب در سطح یک درصد و 5 درصد معنی‌‌دار شد، اما زمان چرای دام اختلاف معنی‌‌داری را نشان نداد. همچنین نتایج ماه‌های موردبررسی نشان داد که میانگین سرعت حرکت دام در سطح 5 درصد معنی‌دار شده و صفات مسافت طی شده و زمان چرا معنی‌دار نشدند. بر اساس نتایج بدست‌آمده مرداد‌ماه سال 1387 با میانگین 4 متر بر ثانیه و خردادماه سال 1388 با میانگین 29 متر بر ثانیه به‌ترتیب دارای کمترین و بیشترین میانگین سرعت حرکت دام بودند؛ با این‌حال خردادماه سال 1388 با میانگین 2/4 متر بر ثانیه و مردادماه سال 1387 با میانگین 4/15 متر بر ثانیه به‌ترتیب کمترین و بیشترین مسافت طی شده توسط دام را داشتند. اطلاع از موارد مذکور، مدیریت مرتع را در تعیین زمان مناسب برای حرکت دام در مرتع یاری می‌کند و سبب افزایش عملکرد دام خواهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of sheep grazing behavior in Cheshmeh Anjir rangelands, Fars province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Fayaz 1
  • Seyed Hamid Habibian 2
  • Hasan Yeganeh 3
  • Anvar Sanaie 4
  • Mohammadjavad Mahdavi 5
1 Assistant Professor, Range Research Division, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Fars, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran
4 Ph.D in Range Management, Department of Rehabilitation of Arid and Mountainous Regions, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
5 Instructor, Agricultural Sciences Department, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

     The knowledge of livestock grazing behavior is one of the effective factors in rangeland management. This research was carried out in order to recognize the sheep grazing behavior in the rangelands of Cheshmeh Anjir, Fars province, during the years 2007-2010.The indicators assessed in this research included the daily distance traveled by livestock, average livestock movement, speed, and the time spent grazing. To determine these parameters, a GPS device was used and attached on the back of a 4- year old ewe using a special belt. Thus, after the start of grazing in the rangeland, the GPS was activated and then its data were extracted using mode track in ILWIS software at the end of the day. Data analysis was done in a completely randomized block design method using SAS software. The results of the study years showed that the average livestock movement speed and the daily distance traveled by livestock were significant at 1% and 5% levels, respectively; however, the time spent grazing did not show significant differences. Also, the results of study months showed that the average livestock movement speed was significant at 5% level and the daily distance traveled by livestock and the time spent grazing were not significant. According to the results, August 2008 with the mean value of 4 m/s and June 2009 with the mean value of 29 m/s had the lowest and highest average livestock movement speed, respectively; however, June 2009 with the mean value of 4.2 m/s and August 2008 with the mean value of 15.4 m/s had the lowest and highest distance traveled by livestock, respectively. The knowledge of mentioned factors will help rangeland management to determine the appropriate time for livestock moving and will increase livestock performance. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grazing behavior
  • Sheep
  • Grazing time
  • Cheshmeh Anjir
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