تاثیر احیاء وَرک‌زارها با یونجه‌کاری دیم بر ترسیب کربن (مطالعه موردی: استان همدان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشگاه ملایر، همدان، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه منابع طبیعی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشگاه ملایر، همدان، ایران

4 کارشناس ارشد مرتعداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشگاه ملایر، همدان، ایران

چکیده

تغییر کاربری و رها شدن اراضی، چرای مفرط و ازدیاد و گسترش گونه‌های ناخواسته از مهمترین چالش‌های  مراتع کشور هستند. به همین منظور در این تحقیق تلاش شده‌است که با ارائه یک راهکار اصلاحی واحد با چالش‌های مذکور مبارزه شود؛ بنابراین از گونه یونجه دیم چند ساله برای کشت در مراتع تخریب شده پوشیده از ورک یا اراضی رهاشده استفاده شد تا ضمن احیا مراتع، موجبات ترسیب کربن هوا به مقدار چشمگیر در اکوسیستم احیاشده با این گونه را نیز فراهم کند؛ بنابراین سه مرتع: احیاشده با یونجه، چرای متوسط و تخریب شده در منطقه حفاظت شده لشگردر ملایر در نظر گرفته شد. در هر یک از این مراتع سایت‌هایی برای نمونه‌برداری انتخاب شد. اندازه و تعداد پلاتها به ترتیب به روش سطح حداقل و روش آماری تعیین شدند. زیتوده هوایی، زیرزمینی و لاشبرگ هر پلات جمع‌آوری گردید. نمونه برداری از خاک در پلاتها نیز به صورت ترکیبی انجام شد و اندازه گیری کربن ترسیب شده نمونه ها در آزمایشگاه انجام شد. همچنین نمونه برداری خاک از دو لایه 30-15 و 15-0 سانتیمتر نیز تهیه شد و کربن آنها اندازه گیری شد. سه مرتع مورد نظر به روش آنالیز واریانس یکطرفه مقایسه شدند و نتایج نشان داد که میزان ترسیب کربن در اکوسیستم مرتع احیاشده با یونجه دیم چندساله (ton/ha 8/36) بعد از گذشت 4 سال حدود 25/1 برابر مرتع چرای متوسط (ton/ha 27/29) و 71/1 برابر مرتع تخریب شده (ton/ha 54/21) می باشد و این نتایج نشان می‌دهد که با احیا مراتع تخریب شده، هم اهداف حفاظت اراضی محقق می شود و هم توانایی اکوسیستم در ترسیب کربن افزایش خواهد یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of rehabilitation of Hulthemia-lands with rainfed alfalfa on carbon sequestration (case study: Hmedan provinse)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bakhtiar Fatahi 1
  • Soheila Aghabeigiamin 2
  • Alireza Ildoromi 3
  • Maedeh ghorbanpour Dalivand 4
1 Assistant Professor, Depatrment of Range and Watershed Management, Faculty of natural resources and environment, Malayer university, Hamadan,Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Depatrment of Natural resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Razi university, Kermanshah,Iran
3 Assosiate Professor, Depatrment of Range and Watershed Management, Faculty of natural resources and environment, Malayer university, Hamadan,Iran
4 M.Sc. Postgraduated of Range Management, Depatrment of Range and Watershed Management, Faculty of natural resources and environment, Malayer university, Hamadan,Iran
چکیده [English]

Land use change, land abandonment, overgrazing, expansion and spread of exotic species are of the most important challenges in the rangelands of the country. For this reason, in this research, it has been attempted to address the challenges by presenting a single improvement solution. Therefore, the perennial rainfedd alfalfa was used for cultivation in degraded rangelands or abandoned lands for both goals of rangeland reclamation and carbon sequestration. Three rangelands were studied in the protected area of Lashgardar-Malayer reclaimed rangeland via alfalfa, medium grazing, and degraded rangelands. In each of these rangelands, sites were selected for sampling. The size and number of plots were determined by the minimal area and statistical method. In each plot, the aboveground and underground biomass and litter were collected. Soil sampling was performed in the plots and the measurement of carbon sequestration was conducted in the laboratory. Soil samples were collected from two layers of 0-15 and 15-30 cm and their carbon was measured. The three study rangelands were compared using a One-Way ANOVA analysis, and the results showed that the amount of carbon sequestration in the rangeland reclaimed  with perennial rainfed alfalfa (36.8 ton / ha) after 4 years was around 1.25 fold higher than the medium grazing rangeland (29.27 ton / ha) and 1.71 fold as compared with the degraded rangeland (21.54 ton / ha). These results indicate that reclamation of degraded rangelands causes to achieve land conservation goals and increase the ability of the ecosystem for carbon sequestration.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Hulthemia
  • range improvement
  • Grazing
  • land use
-Abdi, N. and Gaykani, S., 2015. Biomass carbon sequestration potential of natural and planted shrub and bush species (Case study: northwest of Meyghan desert, Arak, Iran). Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 22 (1): 100-108.

-Abdi, N., Maddah Arefi, H. and Zahedi Amiri, Gh., 2008. Estimation of carbon sequestration in Astragalus rangelands of Markazi province (Case study: Malmir rangeland inShazand region). Iranian journal of Range and Desert Research, 15(2): 269-282.

-Anderson, J., Beduhn, R., Current, D., Espeleta, J., Fissore, C., Gangeness, B., Harting, J., Hobbie, S., Nater, E. and Reich, P., 2008. The Potential for Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in Minnesota; A Report to the Department of Natural Resources from the Minnesota Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Initiative. University of Minnesota, 79p.

-Asmus, C.D., 2009. Soil aggragation and carbon sequestration. Fallowing a single tillage event in no-till soils in a semi-arid environment. A Master of Science thesis of agronomy college of Agriculture, Kansas State University, 173p.

-Azarnivand, H., Joneidi Jafari, H., Chahukey Zare, M. A., Jafari, M. and Nikoo, Sh., 2010. Effect of grazing on carbon sequestration and storage of nitrogen in pasture plain plant species Artemisia sieberi in semnan province. Iranian Journal of Range, 3(4): 590-610.

-Bremer, E., 2009. Potential for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from native rangelands in Alberta (Technical Scoping Document), 24p.

-De Neergaard, A., Porter, J.R. and Gorissen, A., 2002. Distribution of assimilated carbon in plants and rhizosphere soil of basket willow (Sailx viminalis L.). Journal of Plant soil, 245: 307-314.

-Derner, J.D. and Schuman, G.E., 2007. Carbon sequestration and rangelands: A synthesis of land management and precipitation effects. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 62: 2, 77-85.

-Fattahi, B., Aghabeigi Amin, S., Ildemi, A.R. and Ghorbanpour Dalivand, M., 2019. Investigation and comparison of different methods to control of spiny and invader plant as Hulthemia persica (case studya: protected area Lashgardar-Malayer). Project research of Malayer University, 185p.

-Heidari, P., Hojati, S., Enayati zamir, N. and Rayat Pisheh, A., 2017. Effects of land use change on C stock and some biological characteristics of soils in parts of Rakaat watershed, east of Khuzestan province. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 24 (1): 181-192.

-Joneidi Jafari, H., Azarnivand, H., Zare Chahooki, M. A., Jafari, M. and Kargari, A., 2013. Effect of contour furrow on carbon sequestration and nitrogen fixation in Artemisia sieberi rangelands of Semnan province. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 20(2): 298-308.

-Kerr, R.A., 2007. Global warming is changing the world. Journal of Science, 316: 188–90.

-Lal, R., 2008. Carbon sequestration. Journal of Philosofical Transaction Royal Society, 363: 815–830.

-Lal,R., 2004. Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change, Journal of Geoderma, 123: 1-22.

-Lashni Zand, M., Parvizi, Y., Ebrahimi, L., Masoudi, B. and Rafiee, B., 2016. Comparison of carbon sequestration resulting from biological operations in Rimele and Abkandari catchments. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 23(2): 219-230.

-Lashnizand, M., Parvizi, Y., Shahrokhvandi, S.M. and Rafiee, B., 2013. Comparative evaluation of carbon sequestration in relation to watershed management practices and reclamation operation (case study: Rimele, Romeshkhan flood spreading and Abkhandari Koohdasht). Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 20(2): 397-406.

-Luciuk, G.M., Bonneau, M.A., Boyle, D.M. and Vibery, E., 2000. Prairie Farm Rehabilitation. Administration Paper, Carbon Sequestration- Additional Environmental Benefits of Forests in the PFRA.

-Mortenson, M. and Schuman, G., 2002. Carbon sequestration in rangeland interseeded with yellow-flowering alfalfa (Medicago Sativa Spp. Falcata) USDA Symposium on Natural Resource Management to Offset Greenhouse Gas Emission in University of Wyoming.

-Schahczenski, J. and Hill, H., 2009. Agriculture, Climate Change and Carbon Sequestration. ATTRA Publications, Pp 16.

-Schuman, G.E., Ingram, L.J., Stahl, R.D. and Vance G.F., 2005. Dynamics of long-term carbon sequestration on rangelands in the western USA. In XX International Grassland Congress, 26 June-1 July 2005, Dublin, Ireland.

-Schuman, G.E., Janzen, H. and Herrick, J.E., 2002. Soil Carbon Information and Potential Carbon Sequestration by Rangelands.Journal of Environmental Pollution, 116: 391-396.

-Singh, G., Bala, N., Chaudhuri, K.K. and Meena, R.L., 2003. Carbon sequestration potential of common access resources in arid and semi-arid regions of northwestern India. Journal of Indian Forester, 129 (7): 859-864.

-Su, Y.Z., 2007. Soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration following the conversion of cropland to alfalfa forage land in northwest China.Journal of Soil and Tillage Resaerch, 92(1-2): 181-189.

-UNDP., 2000. Carbon sequestration in the decertified rangelands of Hossein Abad, through community.

-Varameh, S., Hosseini, S.M., Abdi, N. and Akbarinia, M., 2009. Effects of afforestation on soil carbon sequestration in an urban forest of arid zone in Chitgar forest park of Tehran. Journal of Forest Science, 3: 75-90.

-Weltzin, J.F., Loik, M.E., Schwinning, S., Williams, D.G., Fay, P.A., Haddad, B.M., Harte, J., Huxman, T.E., Knapp A.K., Lin, G.H., Pockman, W.T., Shaw, M.R., Small, E.E., Smith, M.D., Smith, S.D., Tissue, D.T., and Zak, J.C., 2003. Assessing the response of terrestrial ecosystems to potential changes in precipitation. Journal of Bioscience, 53: 941-952.

Whalen, J.K., Walter, D., Dormar, W. and Dormar, J.F., 2003. Soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in modified rangeland communities. Journal of Range Management, 56(6): 665–672.

-William, E., 2002. Carbon dioxide fluxes in a semiarid environment with high carbonate soils. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 116:91- 102.

-Zun, C.S., Fyles, J.W., Girouard, P. and Samson, R.A., 2001. Carbon sequestration in perennial bioenergy, annual corn and uncultivated systems in southern Quebec. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment, 89(2):135-14.