تعیین پتانسیل تغذیه‌ای چهار گونه گیاه (Arctium lappa، Verbascum thapsus ، Althaea officinalis و Ferula hermonis) در مراتع خراسان رضوی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی


1 استادیار، گروه علوم دامی، مجتمع آموزش عالی تربت‌جام، ایران

2 استاد، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران


آگاهی از ارزش تغذیه‌ای گیاهان مختلف مرتعی، می‌تواند به دامداران در تهیه یک جیره مناسب، کمک شایان توجهی بکند، از این‌رو آزمایشاتی با هدف تعیین ترکیبات شیمیایی، مینرالی، تولید گاز و سایر پارامترهای تخمیری چهار گونه گیاه مرتعی قابل رویش در منطقه تربت‌جام (شامل Arctium lappa، Verbascum thapsus ، Althaea officinalis و Ferula hermonis) انجام شد. گیاهان فوق در زمان قبل از گلدهی به‌صورت تصادفی جمع‌آوری شدند. دامنه پروتئین‌خام (87/22-85/15 درصد)، خاکستر (10/16-27/8 درصد)، چربی‌خام (75/5-85/0 درصد)، الیاف نامحلول در شوینده خنثی (53/37-27/19 درصد)، الیاف نامحلول در شوینده اسیدی (53/26-53/15 درصد)، لیگنین نامحلول در شوینده اسیدی (43/5-83/3 درصد) و فیبرخام (74/21-49/12 درصد) برای چهار گونه گیاهی متفاوت بود. بیشترین مقدار کلسیم (26/12 گرم/کیلوگرم ماده‌خشک) مربوط به Althaea officinalisبود. فراسنجه‌های تولید گاز و سایر پارامترهای تخمیری در بین گیاهان نیز متفاوت بود به‌طوری‌که بیشترین مقدار تولید گاز در زمان‌های 12، 24 و 48 ساعت انکوباسیون (به‌ترتیب 32/47، 64/61، 21/71 میلی‌لیتر)، پتانسیل تولید گاز (70/75 میلی‌لیتر)، تجزیه‌پذیری ماده‌خشک و ماده‌آلی (به‌ترتیب 99/82 و 60/84 درصد)، انرژی قابل متابولیسم (66/10 مگاژول در کیلوگرم ماده‌خشک)، انرژی خالص شیردهی (51/6 مگاژول در کیلوگرم ماده‌خشک) و کل اسیدهای چرب فرار (62/36 میلی‌مول در لیتر) در Verbascum thapsusمشاهده شد. یک ضریب همبستگی منفی بین گاز تولید شده در زمان 24 ساعت انکوباسیون با چربی‌خام، پروتئین‌خام و نیتروژن آمونیاکی مشاهده شد. مقایسه فراسنجه‌های تولید گاز و پارامترهای تخمیری و تجزیه‌پذیری در بین گیاهان مورد مطالعه حاکی از آن بود که گونه Verbascum thapsus از پتانسیل تغذیه‌ای بالاتری برخوردار می‌باشد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Nutritional potential of four plant species (Arctium lappa, Verbascum thapsus, Althaea officinalis and Ferula hermonis) in Razavi Khorasan rangelands

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Kazemi 1
  • Reza valizadeh 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, Higher Education Complex of Torbat-e Jam, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

    Awareness of the nutritional value of different rangeland plants can help animal husbandries to prepare a suitable diet; hence some experiments were conducted to determine the chemical compositions, minerals, gas production and other fermentation parameters of four range plants that can be grown in Torbat-e Jam (including Arctium lappa, Verbascum thapsus, Althaea officinalis and Ferula hermonis), Iran. The above plants were randomly collected before flowering. The range of crude protein (15.85- 22.87%), ash (8.27-16.10%), crude fat (0.85-5.75%), neutral detergent fiber (19.27-37.53%), acid detergent fiber (15.53-26.53%), acid detergent lignin (3.83-5.43%), and crude fiber (12.49-21.74%) was different among four plant species. The highest amount of calcium (12.26 g/kg DM) was related to Althaea officinalis. The parameters of gas production and other fermentation parameters were also different among the plants, so that the maximum amount of gas production after 12, 24, and 48 h incubation (47.32, 61.64, 71.21 ml, respectively), potential gas production (75.70 ml), dry matter and organic matter digestibility (82.99 and 84.60 %, respectively), metabolizable energy (10.66 MJ/kg DM), net energy for lactation (6.51 MJ/kg DM), and total volatile fatty acids (36.62 mmol/L) were found in Verbascum olympicum. There was a negative correlation coefficient between the gas produced after 24 h incubation with ether extract, crude protein, and ammonia nitrogen. Comparison of the gas production, fermentation and degradability parameters among studied plants indicated that Verbascum thapsus had higher potential nutritive value.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Range plants
  • nutritional value
  • Diet
  • Razavi Khorasan
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