شناخت مهمترین عوامل موثر فیزیوگرافی، توپوگرافی و خاکی بر تنوع‌‌گیاهی (مطالعه موردی: مراتع کوهستانی نمین، اردبیل)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد مرتعداری، اداره کل منابع طبیعی و آبخیزداری اردبیل، اردبیل، ایران

2 دانشیار پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات‌‌مرتع، موسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع‌‌طبیعی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

اطلاع از تنوع‌‌گونه‌‌ای گیاهی و ارتباط آن با عوامل‌‌محیطی، از مقدمات ضروری در عملیات احیای مرتع و اولویت حفاظت و حمایت از تنوع‌‌گونه‌‌ای رویشگاه‌‌هاست. بدین‌‌منظور، مراتع کوهستانی نمین، انتخاب و به روش تصادفی سیستماتیک در زیرحوزه‌‌ها، اقدام به برداشت داده‌‌های پوشش‌‌گیاهی شد. با ثبت ویژگی‌‌های فیزیوگرافی و توپوگرافی و اندازه‌‌گیری خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک، رابطه بین تنوع گیاهی و خصوصیات زیرحوزه‌‌ها، بررسی شد. بدین‌‌منظور برای بررسی ارتباط تنوع‌‌گونه‌ای با ویژگی‌‌های محیطی، با توجه به طول گرادیان محاسبه ‌شده، از روش آنالیزافزونگی (RDA) به‌‌‌عنوان روش خطی استفاده شد. بر مبنای نتایج، ویژگی‌‌های فیزیوگرافی و توپوگرافی، بر غنای‌‌گونه‌‌ای و خصوصیات‌‌شیمیایی خاک و بر مقدار یکنواختی و تنوع‌‌گونه‌‌ای زیرحوزه‌‌ها، بیشترین تاثیر را داشت و میزان 64/89 درصد از تغییرات را تبیین می‌‌کرد. در مجموع؛ مقدار شیب، کربن‌‌آلی و هدایت‌‌الکتریکی خاک، از مهمترین عوامل موثر بر افزایش مقادیر شاخص‌‌های تنوع‌‌گونه‌‌ای و پارامترهای طول، مساحت و جهت زیرحوزه، از مهمترین عوامل موثر بر کاهش شاخص‌‌های مذکور بود. لذا در شرایطی که هدف مدیریت، افزایش تنوع‌‌گونه‌ای باشد، بایستی مکان‌‌هایی که از نظر خصوصیات‌‌شیمیایی خاک (ماده‌‌آلی و به‌‌تبع‌‌آن کربن‌‌آلی) در معرض خطر هستند، در اولویت قرار گیرند و اگر هدف مدیریت، افزایش ساختار پوشش‌‌گیاهی و افزایش درصد حفاظت گیاهی از فرسایش‌‌پاشمانی باشد، در این صورت بایستی مکان‌‌هایی که در جهات جنوبی واقع هستند و دارای شیب تند می‌‌باشند، در اولویت قرار گیرند. ضمن اینکه انجام عملیات احیای مرتع، در زیرحوزه‌‌های با مساحت بزرگتر، به‌‌واسطه پائین بودن غنای‌‌گونه‌‌ای، در اولویت می‌‌باشد و زیرحوزه‌‌های کوچکتر، به‌‌واسطه دارا بودن غنای بالا، باید در اولویت حفاظت و حمایت، قرار گیرند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Recognition the most important factors of physiography, topography and soil on plant diversity (Case study: Namin mountain rangelands, Ardebil)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Asad Sadeghpour 1
  • Javad Moetamedi 2
  • Esmaeil Sheidai Karkaj 3
1 M.Sc. in Range Management, Ardabil Bureau of Natural Resources and Watershed Management, Ardabil, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Rangeland Research Division, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Range and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

Information of plant diversity and its relationship with environmental factors are necessary requirements for rangeland rehabilitation techniques and priority of biodiversity conservation in local habitats. To collect vegetation cover data, the Namin mountainous rangelands were selected and systematic random sampling in ecological units was used. The relationship between plant diversity and ecological unit’s characteristics (Sub-basins) was studied by recording the data in physiographic, topographic, chemistry and physics in the soil. To investigate the relationship between species diversity and environmental factors, the redundancy analysis (RDA) method was used as linear method based on gradient length. Based on the results, the physiographic and topographic had significant effect on the richness of the species. On the other hand, soil chemical properties had the greatest impact on the amount of species evenness and diversity of the ecological units and explained 89.64% of the variations. In general, slope, organic carbon amd EC are the most important effective characteristic on the enhancement species diversity idexes and the length parameters. It was also indicated that area and direction of sites are the most important factors on reduction of diversity indices. Therefore, in situations where the purpose of the management to be improve species diversity, places where are in endanger in terms of chemical properties of the soil (organic matter and, consequently, organic carbon) should be prioritized. If the aim of management to be increase in vegetation structure and percentage of plant protection from splash erosion, in this case, places where are in the southern direction and have a steep slope should be prioritized. Furthermore, rangeland rehabilitation techniques are a priority in larger-scale units due to the lower species richness, and smaller units, due to the high plant species richness, should be prioritized of conservation and protection.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • redundancy analysis
  • Biodiversity
  • Species richness
  • Protection
  • environmental factors
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