نقش قرق در تغییر پایداری خاکدانه و ساختمان خاک‌های مرتعی استان گلستان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

2 2- استادیار، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه مرتعداری، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

4 دانشجوی دکتری علوم مرتع دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

5 دانشجوی دکتری علوم مرتع دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

پایداری خاکدانه و ساختمان خاک به عنوان شاخص­های کلیدی سلامت خاک مرتع بوده و از عوامل مؤثر در کنترل فرسایش خاک به ‌شمار می‌روند. تحقیق حاضر به منظور بررسی اثر قرق بر وضعیت پایداری خاکدانه‌ها و ساختمان خاک در چهار منطقه از مراتع استان گلستان شامل چهارباغ، اینچه‌برون، گمیشان و مراوه‌تپه انجام شد. نمونه‌برداری خاک از دو عمق 20-0 و 40-20 سانتی­متر با حفر پروفیل و به روش تصادفی-سیستماتیک و در امتداد هر ترانسکت در هر یک از سایت‌های قرق و مجاور قرق مناطق چهارگانه انجام شد. پایداری خاکدانه­ها به روش الک تر در آزمایشگاه مورد اندازه­گیری قرار گرفت. نتایج حاصل برای سایت­های قرق و مجاور قرق و نیز دو عمق مربوطه به ترتیب با استفاده از آزمون تی نمونه‌های مستقل و جفتی مورد تجزیه و تحلیل آماری قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد در اغلب سایت­های مورد مطالعه مقادیر پایداری در خاک سطحی نسبت به خاک عمقی بیشتر می‌باشد. نتایج بررسی اثر قرق مرتع بر تغییر مورفولوژیکی و وضعیت ساختمان خاک نشان از نقش مثبت قرق در توسعه ساختمان خاک در تمامی مناطق مورد بررسی داشته است ولی این نتایج در بررسی آماری پایداری خاکدانه تنها در منطقه اینچه‌برون و گمیشان از لحاظ آماری معنی‌دار شد. بالاترین مقدار پایداری خاکدانه در عمق اول سایت قرق گمیشان (52/4 میلی­متر) و کمترین میزان پایداری خاکدانه در عمق دوم سایت چرایی گمیشان (15/1 میلی­متر) مشاهده شد. بررسی­ نهایی نتایج نشان داد صرف­نظر از نقش مثبت قرق در ارتقای وضعیت پایداری خاکدانه، عواملی همچون موقعیت جغرافیایی مرتع، اقلیم، نوع پوشش گیاهی و شرایط چرای دام به عنوان عوامل همراه قرق مؤثر بر پایداری خاکدانه و ساختمان خاک بایستی مورد توجه واقع شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The role of Exclosure in the change of aggregate stability and soil structure of rangelands in Golestan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Esmaiel Sheidai Karkaj 1
  • Hosein Rezaei 2
  • Hamid Niknahad Gharemakher 3
  • Isa Jafari Footami 4
  • Abolfazl Sharifian 5
1 Assistant professor, Department of Range and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Rangeland Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. Gorgan, Iran
4 Ph.D student in Rangeland Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
5 Ph.D student in Rangeland Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Soil aggregate stability and soil structure considered as the key indicators of range soil health and counted as effective factors in soil erosion control. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of exclosure on the stability of aggregates and soil structure in four areas of Golestan province including Chaharbagh, Incheboron, Gomishan and Maravetapeh. Soil sampling was carried out from two depths of 0-20 and 20-40 cm by digging profile in random-systematic method along transects in each of exclosure and adjacent sites of quadruple areas. Aggregates stability was measured by the method of wet sieving in the laboratory. The results were analyzed statistically using independent and paired samples t-test for exclosure sites and adjacent exclosure sites as well as two corresponding depths, respectively. In the most of studied sites, the aggregate stability values were higher in the surface soil than the deep soil.The results indicated that the effect of rangeland exclosure on morphological changes and soil status indicating positive role in development of soil structure in all studied areas, however, these results were statistically significant only in the Incheboron and Gommishan area in view point of soil aggregate stability. The highest value of soil stability was in the first depth (4.52 mm) of Gomishan exclosure site and the lowest one was in the second depth (1.15 mm) in Gomishan grazing site. The final result showed that regardless of positive role of exclosure in promoting the stability of aggregate, factors such as geographic position of rangeland, climate, vegetation type and grazing conditions as the associated factors affecting the stability of aggregate and soil structure should be considered.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aggregate stability
  • Soil structure
  • rangeland exclosure
  • Golestan Province
  • rangeland
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