اثر تیمارهای مختلف بر شکست خواب و تحریک جوانه زنی بذر زرین گیاه (Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیارگروه گیاهان دارویی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه اراک، اراک، ایران

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد گیاهان دارویی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه اراک، اراک، ایران

چکیده

بذر اکثر گیاهان دارویی در شرایط طبیعی دارای خواب می­باشند، بنابراین شناخت عوامل موثر بر خواب بذر و ایجاد شرایط بهینه برای جوانه‌زنی آن­ها برای کشت گسترده گیاهان دارویی لازم می­باشد. زرین گیاه (بادرنجبویه دنایی) انحصاری ایران است و گیاهی مهم (در حال انقراض) از خانواده نعناعیان است. این تحقیق به منظور یافتن موثرترین تیمار جهت شکستن خواب بذر زرین گیاه که از مشکلات عمده زراعت آن در سطح وسیع و یا احیا در عرصه­های طبیعی آن است صورت گرفت. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل خراش دهی با سمباده، اسید سولفوریک 95% (در دو زمان  3 و 6 دقیقه و تلفیقی از این دو تیمار)، اسید جیبرلیک (125، 250و 500 میکروگرم بر میلی لیتر)، نیترات­پتاسیم (2/0 و 4/0 درصد در 2 بازه­ زمانی) و همچنین سرمادهی مرطوب (در دمای 5 درجه سانتیگراد به مدت 24، 48و 72 ساعت) در مقایسه با شاهد (آب­جاری در دو بازده زمانی 24 و 48 ساعت) انجام شد. آزمایش در قالب یک طرح کاملأ تصادفی اجرا گردید. نتایج بدست آمده نشان داد که در بین تیمارها استفاده از خراش­دهی با سمباده و استفاده از اسید سولفوریک بیشترین اختلاف معنی­داری در سطح یک درصد بر درصد جوانه­زنی، سرعت جوانه­زنی، شاخص ویگور، وزن تر و خشک ساقه و وزن تر و خشک ریشه را­ داشت. نتایج نشان داد که تیمار اسیدسولفوریک به مدت سه دقیقه باعث افزایش معنی داری در میزان جوانه­زنی بذور نسبت به شاهد و سایر تیمار های دیگر گردید نتایج یافته­ها نشانگر این است که وجود پوسته سخت و موسیلاژ زیاد به عنوان یک مانع فیزیکی است و از طریق ممانعت از گسترش رویان و یا از طریق ایجاد محدودیت در جذب آب و تبادلات گازی به عنوان عوامل محدود کننده جوانه­زنی عمل می­کند. بنابراین اعمال یکسری از تیمارها نظیر خراش دهی بذر و تیمارهای هورمونی نظیر جیبرلین جوانه زنی بذر زرین گیاه را بهبود می بخشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of different treatments on breaking seed dormancy and stimulate germination in dragonhead (Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehrnaz Hatami 1
  • Mohammadreza Samadi 2
  • Parisa Khanizadeh 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Arak University,Arak, Iran
2 Former M.Sc. Student of Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Arak University, Arak, Iran
چکیده [English]

The most of medicinal plants seeds have dormancy under normal conditions, therefore, it is necessary to know the affective factors on seed dormancy and creation optimal conditions for their germination to extensive cultivation of medicinal plants. Dracocephalum kotschyi is an important Iranian endemic herbs which is extinting in the Lamiaceae family. This research was conducted in order to find the most effective treatment to break seed dormancy, which is one of the major problems cultivation on a large scale and rehabilitation in the natural areas. Experimental treatments including of scarification with sand paper, 95% sulfuric acid in 3 and 6 min and their combination, gibberellic acid (125, 250 and 500 μg ml-1), nitrate potassium (% 0.2 and %0.4 in 2 times) and also for moist chilling was at (5°C for 24, 48 and 72 hours) as compare to control (watering in 24 and 48 hours). The experiment was done base on the completely randomized design (CRD). The obtained results indicated that, there was a significant difference (p-value< 0.01) between in treatments of scarification with sand paper and 95% sulfuric acid on germination percentage, germination rate, vigor index, fresh and dry weight of the plumule and radicle. The results showed that sulphuric acid treatment in 3 minutes increased significantly seed germination as compare to control and other treatments. Obtained results represents that the presence of seed hard shell and high mucilage is a physical barrier and acts as a limiting factor in the germination of dragonhead by preventing the spread of embryos or by limiting the absorption of water and gas exchange. So, application of some treatments like scarification and hormonal treatment such as gibberellin could be improved the germination of dragonhead.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dracocephalum kotschyi
  • Seed dormancy
  • endemic plant
  • Sulfuric Acid
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