فصل و روش مناسب استقرار گونه شبدر قرمز ( Trifolium pratense L.) در مراتع استپی مازندران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی


1 مربی پژوهشی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان مازندران، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ساری، ایران

2 استادیار پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات مرتع، موسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران


در برنامه افزایش تولید علوفه در مراتع کشور، گردآوری و ژرف­نگری دانش استقرار گیاهان علوفه­ای، ضروری است. بدین منظور، بذر گونهTrifoliumpratense، از بازار شهر ساری تهیه و کشت شد. هدف از این بررسی تعیین فصل بهینه و روش کارآمد استقرار این گونه برای اصلاح مراتع در عرصه مراتع استپی بود. محل کشت این گونه در ایستگاه آبخوانداری پشتکوه ساری با متوسط بارندگی سالانه 350 میلی­متر و اقلیم نیمه خشک سرد بود. برای این منظور، دو تیمار بذرکاری و بذرپاشی در دو تاریخ کشت پائیزه و بهاره، بر پایه طرح آماری کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کاملا تصادفی، با تیمار اصلی تاریخ کشت و تیمار فرعی روش کشت، در سه تکرار مورد مقایسه قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد، بین فصل کشت و همچنین بین دو روش کشت، در سطح یک درصد خطا تفاوت معنی­دار وجود داشت. جوانه­زنی و زنده­مانی در فصل کشت پاییز(جوانه­زنی11/39%، زنده­مانی 83/13%) نسبت به کشت بهاره(جوانه­زنی06/30%، زنده­مانی83/11%) ارجحیت داشت. همچنین کشت بصورت بذر­کاری(جوانه­زنی22/39%، زنده­مانی78/14%) نسبت به بذرپاشی(جوانه­زنی94/29% ، زنده­مانی89/10%)، برتری نشان داد. با توجه به نتایج بدست آمده، کشت پاییزه نسبت به کشت بهاره و روش بذرکاری نسبت به روش بذرپاشی بهتر بود. امکان اصلاح مراتع مناطق مشابه آب و هوایی و خصوصیات فیزیکی مرتع محل آزمایش، و  کشت پاییزه شبدر قرمز به روش بذرکاری برای افزایش تولید علوفه، و چرای مستقیم دام وجود دارد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Suitable season and methods cultivation Trifolium pratense in Mazandaran steppe range

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farhad Azhir 1
  • Moham,mad Fayaz 2
1 Faculty member of Mazandaran Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Centerو (AREEO), Sari, Iran
2 Assistant professor, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

In program of increasing forage production in rangelands of the country, gathering and deepening knowledge of forage plants establishment is necessary. So seeds of Trifolium pratense species prepared from Sari city market and cultivated. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal season and efficient method of species establishment for rangeland breeding in steppe rangelands. Experiment was performed in Posht-kooh water spreading station with 350 mm precipitation and semi-arid-cold climate. For this purpose, two sowing treatments including of seeding and seed spacing in two cultivation season of fall and spring, in split plot based on completely randomize block design in three repetitions were performed. Results indicated that there was a significant difference at (p<0.01) between the cultivation season and two cultivation methods. Germination and viability in fall season (39.11% germination, 13.83% viability) were more preferable to spring cultivation (30.06% germination, 11.83% viability). Seed cultivation in seeding (germination 39.22%, 14.78% viability) was also superior to seed spacing (29.94% germination, 10.89% viability). According to the obtained results, fall cultivation and seeding method were better than spring cultivation and seed spacing method. There is possibility of breeding rangelands in similar climatic and physical properties of the rangelands at the test site as well as fall cultivation and seeding method to increase forage production and direct grazing. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Trifolium pratense
  • Seedling
  • spaced planting-seed
  • improving rangeland
  • Red clover
-  Abdi, N., 2006. The effects of salinity on germination of three clover species (Trifolium spp.). Journal of New Finding in Agriculture, 1(1):45-54.

-  Amiri, M. J. and Eslamian, S. S., 2010. Investigation of climate change in Iran. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 3(4): 208-216.

-  Asri, U., 2012. Range plants of Iran volume 2, Research institute of forests and rangelands, Tehran, 537p.

-  Azarnivand, H. and Zarechahoki, M. A., 2008. Range improvement, University of Tehran press, 54p.

-  Erfanzadeh, R. and Arzani, H., 2003.Study on effects of phenological stages and soil characteristics on forage quality of two range species of Trifolium pratense and Coronila varia (case study: Javaherr deh, Ramsar). Journal of Pajouhesh-Va-Sazandegi (in Agronomy and Horticulture), 16(58): 2-4.

-  Frame, J., Harkess, R. D. and Hunt, I. V., 1985. Effect of seed rate of red clover and of companion timothy or tall Fescue on herbage production. Journal of Grass and Forage Science, 40: 459-465.

-  Graves, W. L., Williams, W. A., Vaughn, E. C., Thomsen, C. D. and Jones, M. B., 2001. Australian varieties improve pasture in long-term annual legume trials. Journal of California Agriculture, 55(6): 60-63.

-  Heidari Sharifabad, H. and Dorry, M. A., 2002. Forage legumes volume 1, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands Publisher, 311 p.

-  Heshmati, G. H., Baghani, M. and Bazrafshan, A., 2006. Comparison of nutritional values of 11 rangeland species in eastern part of Golestan province. Journal of Pajouhesh & Sazandegi, 73:90-95.

-  Jaber alansar, Z., Tarkesh Esfahani, M., Basiri, M. and Pourmanafi, S., 2017. Effects of environmental factors on forage production of Steppe and semi Steppe rangelands in western part of Isfahan province. Journal of rangelands, 10(3) : 302-314.

-  Jafari, A., Connolly, V., Frolich, A. and Walsh, E. K., 2003. A note on estimation of quality in perennial ryegrass by near infrared spectroscopy. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 42: 293-299.

-  Jafari, A. A., Ziaeinasab, M., Hesamzadeh Hejazi, S. M. and Madah Arefi, H., 2004. Genetic evaluation for seed and forage yield in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) populations through multivariate analysis, Iranian Journal of Rangelands and Forests Plant Breeding and Genetic, 12(1): 91-108.

-  Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M. and Jafari, L., 2016. Evaluation of climate change effect on agricultural production of Iran: I. predicting the future agroclimatic conditions. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 13(4): 651-664.

-  Jankju, M., Noedoost, F. and Rafiei, F., 2016. Comparing plant functional types in an old-field and a natural rangeland vegetation. Journal of Rangeland and Watershed Management, 68 (4): 835-851.

-  Mahdavi, S. K. H., Azaryan, A., Javadi, M. R. and Mahmoodi, J., 2016. Effects of flood spreading on some physic-chemical properties and soil fertility (Case study: Band-E Ali

-  khan area, Varamin). Journal of Rangelands, 10(1):68-81.

-  Nazari, S., Ghorbani, J., Zali, S. H. and Tamartash, R., 2016. Effects of livestock grazing and invasion of Stachys byzantina on some vegetation indices (Case study: mountain grassland in the northern slopes of Alborz). Journal of Rangelands, 10(1): 27-40.

-  Pourmoradi, S. and Jafari, A. A., 2009. Forage production in 7 ecotypes of red clover (Trifolium pratense) in pure stands and in mix cropping with tall fescue in northern Alborz Mountains, rangelands. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 16(1): 22-33.

-  Pourmoradi, S. and Jafari, A. A., 2011. Evaluation of forage yield and quality traits in 7 varieties of white clover grown in rangelands of Mazandaran province, Iran. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 17(4): 615-623.

-  Pourmoradi, S. and Jafari, A. A., 2015. Evaluation of herbage yield and quality in varieties of red clover cultivated in rangelands of Mazandaran province Iran. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 22(1): 121-130.

-  Saboohi, R., Soltani, S., Khodagholi, M., 2012. Trend analysis of temperature parameters in Iran. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 109: 529-547.

-  Safari, H., Arzani, H. and Tavili, A., 2017. Identification of appropriate rangeland restoration methods based on environmental data (Case study: Taleghan rangeland). Journal of Rangeland and Watershed Management, 69 (3), 611-619.

-  Smith, K. F., Reed, K. F. M. J. and Food, Z., 1997. An assessment of relative importance of specific traits for genetic improvement of nutritive value in dairy pasture. Journal of Grass and Forage Science, 52: 167-175.

-  Wheeler, J. and Corbett, L., 1989. Criteria for breeding forages of improved feeding value: Results of a Delphi survey. Journal of Grass and Forage Science, 44: 77-83.

-  Zamanian, M., 2009. Assessment and comparison of potential forage yield of red clover cultivars, Seed and Plant Improvement Journal, 25(1):95-108.

-  Zamanian, M., Siadat, S. A., Fathi, G. H., Choukan, R., Jafari, A. A. and Bakhshandeh, A., 2013. Assessment of required growing degree days for phenological stages of four clover species in different planting dates, Seed and Plant Production Journal, 29-2(2):149-167.