فصل و روش مناسب استقرار گونه شبدر قرمز ( Trifolium pratense L.) در مراتع استپی مازندران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی پژوهشی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان مازندران، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ساری، ایران

2 استادیار پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات مرتع، موسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در برنامه افزایش تولید علوفه در مراتع کشور، گردآوری و ژرف­نگری دانش استقرار گیاهان علوفه­ای، ضروری است. بدین منظور، بذر گونهTrifoliumpratense، از بازار شهر ساری تهیه و کشت شد. هدف از این بررسی تعیین فصل بهینه و روش کارآمد استقرار این گونه برای اصلاح مراتع در عرصه مراتع استپی بود. محل کشت این گونه در ایستگاه آبخوانداری پشتکوه ساری با متوسط بارندگی سالانه 350 میلی­متر و اقلیم نیمه خشک سرد بود. برای این منظور، دو تیمار بذرکاری و بذرپاشی در دو تاریخ کشت پائیزه و بهاره، بر پایه طرح آماری کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کاملا تصادفی، با تیمار اصلی تاریخ کشت و تیمار فرعی روش کشت، در سه تکرار مورد مقایسه قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد، بین فصل کشت و همچنین بین دو روش کشت، در سطح یک درصد خطا تفاوت معنی­دار وجود داشت. جوانه­زنی و زنده­مانی در فصل کشت پاییز(جوانه­زنی11/39%، زنده­مانی 83/13%) نسبت به کشت بهاره(جوانه­زنی06/30%، زنده­مانی83/11%) ارجحیت داشت. همچنین کشت بصورت بذر­کاری(جوانه­زنی22/39%، زنده­مانی78/14%) نسبت به بذرپاشی(جوانه­زنی94/29% ، زنده­مانی89/10%)، برتری نشان داد. با توجه به نتایج بدست آمده، کشت پاییزه نسبت به کشت بهاره و روش بذرکاری نسبت به روش بذرپاشی بهتر بود. امکان اصلاح مراتع مناطق مشابه آب و هوایی و خصوصیات فیزیکی مرتع محل آزمایش، و  کشت پاییزه شبدر قرمز به روش بذرکاری برای افزایش تولید علوفه، و چرای مستقیم دام وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Suitable season and methods cultivation Trifolium pratense in Mazandaran steppe range

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farhad Azhir 1
  • Moham,mad Fayaz 2
1 Faculty member of Mazandaran Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Centerو (AREEO), Sari, Iran
2 Assistant professor, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

In program of increasing forage production in rangelands of the country, gathering and deepening knowledge of forage plants establishment is necessary. So seeds of Trifolium pratense species prepared from Sari city market and cultivated. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal season and efficient method of species establishment for rangeland breeding in steppe rangelands. Experiment was performed in Posht-kooh water spreading station with 350 mm precipitation and semi-arid-cold climate. For this purpose, two sowing treatments including of seeding and seed spacing in two cultivation season of fall and spring, in split plot based on completely randomize block design in three repetitions were performed. Results indicated that there was a significant difference at (p<0.01) between the cultivation season and two cultivation methods. Germination and viability in fall season (39.11% germination, 13.83% viability) were more preferable to spring cultivation (30.06% germination, 11.83% viability). Seed cultivation in seeding (germination 39.22%, 14.78% viability) was also superior to seed spacing (29.94% germination, 10.89% viability). According to the obtained results, fall cultivation and seeding method were better than spring cultivation and seed spacing method. There is possibility of breeding rangelands in similar climatic and physical properties of the rangelands at the test site as well as fall cultivation and seeding method to increase forage production and direct grazing. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Trifolium pratense
  • Seedling
  • spaced planting-seed
  • improving rangeland
  • Red clover
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