تغییرات تنوع بتای گلسنگ‌ها در شدت‌های مختلف چرای دام در مراتع کوهسری سمیرم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته‌ی دکتری علوم مرتع، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان. ایران

2 استاد گروه مرتعداری دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان. ایران

3 دانشیار گروه مهندسی آب دانشکده مهندسی آب و خاک دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان. ایران

چکیده

پوسته­های بیولوژیک از جمله گلسنگ­ها امروزه به عنوان یکی از شاخص­های بیولوژیکی زنده استفاده می­شوند. هدف اصلی این مطالعه ارزیابی روند تغییرات تنوع گلسنگ­ها در فشارهای مختلف چرایی در طول سال در مراتع کوهسری شهرستان سمیرم استان اصفهان است. تنوع گلسنگ­ها متغیر وابسته و آشفتگی وارده شامل 5 میزان دامگذاری 1، 5/1،2،5/2 و3 واحد دامی در هکتار به عنوان متغیر مستقل است. میزان­های دامگذاری به مدت 4 سال با اجرای 5 سناریو مدیریتی (چرا و قرق به صورت متناوب و متوالی) اعمال و مطالعه شد. حضور و عدم حضور گلسنگ­ها به روش نمونه­برداری تصادفی با استفاده از ترانسکت و واحدهای نمونه­برداری تو در تو انجام شد. تنوع گلسنگ با استفاده از نرم­افزار PAST و رابطه­ی بین متغیرها با SPSS محاسبه شد. نتایج نشان داد تنوع گلسنگ­ها به خوبی نشانگر میزان فشار بر اکوسیستم مرتع است. در مدیریت اکوسیستم­های مرتعی می­توان از ویژگی تنوع گلسنگ به عنوان شاخص اکولوژیکی به منظور تحت فشار بودن یا نبودن اکوسیستم­های مرتعی اکوسیستم مرتع استفاده نمود. همچنین بهترین سناریوی مدیریت چرایی برای این منطقه مبتنی بر تغییرات تنوع گلسنگ، سناریوی چرای متناوب (یک سال در میان چرا و استراحت بسته به وضعیت مرتع و روش مرتعداری) پیشنهاد می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Lichen beta diversity variations at different grazing intensity in Semirom mountainous rangelands

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ezatollah Moradi 1
  • Gholamali Heshmati 2
  • Amirahmad Dehghani 3
1 Ph.D. Rangeland Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural sciences & Natural Resources.Iran
2 Professor, Gorgan University of Agricultural sciences & Natural Resources.Iran
3 Associate Prof. Dept. Water Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural sciences & Natural Resources, Iran
چکیده [English]

Nowadays, biological crusts, including lichens, are used as a living biological indexes. The Main objective of this study is evaluation of lichen diversity trends at differences grazing intensity in the mountain rangelands of Semorom in Isfahan province. The lichen diversity is dependent variable and grazing intensity (consists of 5 stoking rate 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 animal unit per hectare) considerd as independent variable. Each stoking rate studied along 4 years by implementing 5 management scenarios (grazing and ungrazing alternatively and consecutively). The presence and absence of lichens was performed by random sampling method using transects and sampling units. The lichen diversity analyzed by PAST software and the relationship between variables was calculated by SPSS. The result showed that the lichens diversity is a good indicates of pressure on rangeland ecosystems. In management of rangeland ecosystems, lichen diversity can be used as an ecological indicator for rangeland ecosystems under pressure or non-pressure. Also, the best grazing management scenario for this area is suggested based on the variation of lichen diversity, alternating grazing scenario (every one year between grazing and resting depending on rangeland status and range method).
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • rangeland
  • lichen
  • grazing pressure
  • scenario
-  Anderson, D. C., Harper, K. T. and Holmgern, R. C., 1982. Factors influencing development of cryptogamic soil crust in Utha Desert. Journal of Range Management, 35: 180-185.

-  Anderson, J. L., 1994. Exclosures on the Beaver Dam slop in Arizona and Utah. Journal of Rangelands, 16: 184-188.

-  Belanp, J. and Eldridge, D., 2003. Disturbance and recovery of biological soil crusts. In Belanp, J. and Lange, O. L. (Eds.). Biological Soil crusts: Structure, function, and management. Springer-Verlage, Berlin Hildberg, Germany. 2nd edition: 363-383.

-  Belanp, J., 1990. Effects of air pollution on cold desert cyanobacterial, lichen soil crusts and selected rock lichens. Ph D. Dissertation. Brighsm Young University, Provo. USA.

-  Belanp, J., Budel, B. and Lange, O. L., 2003. Biological soil crusts, characteristics and distribution. In Belanp, J. and Lange, O.L. (Eds.). Biological soil crusts: Structure, function, and management. Springer-Verlage Berlin Hildberg, Germany, 2nd edition: 3-30.

-  Belanp, J., Kaltenecker, H., Rosenteleter, J., Williams, R., Leonard, S. and Eldridge, D., 2001. Biological soil crusts: Ecology and management. National Sience and Technology Center, Bureau of Land Management, Denever, Colorado, 110p.

-  Beymer, R. J. and Klopatek, J. M., 1992. Effects of grazing on cryptobiotic crusts in Pinyon-Juniper woodlands in Grand Canyon National Park. Journal of American Middle Naturalist, 127: 139-148.

-  Bonham, C. H. D., 1989. Measurments for terrestrial vegetation. A Wiley،Interscience Publication. New York, 338p.

-  Borhani, M., Arzani, H., Basiri, M., Zare Chahouki, M. A. and Farahpour, M., 2014. Investigating the effects of range management plans on vegetation of Semirum -Esfahan province. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 21 (3): 530-540.

-  Dehdari, S., Arzani, H., Movahed, H., Zare Chahouki, M. A. and Shaban Ali Fami, H., 2014. Comparison of rangelands with/without Range Management Plan (RMP) using application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) in Semirom. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 21 (3): 383-393.

-  Eldridge, D. and Green, R. S. B., 1994. Microbiotic soil crusts: A review of their roles in soil and ecological prosses in the rangelands of Australia. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 32: 389-415.

-  Eldridge, D. and Tozer, M. E., 1997. A particle guide to soil lichens and bryophytes of Australia's dry Country. Department of Land and Water Conservation. Australia, 80p.

-  Eldridge, D. J., Semple, W. S. and Koen, T. B., 2000. Dynamics of cryptogamic soil crusts in derived grassland in south-eastern Australia. Journal of Austral Ecology, 25: 232–240.

-  Galun, M., 1963. Autecological and synecological observations on lichens of the Negev. Journal of Botany, 12: 179-186.

-  Ghorbani, Z., Sefidi, K., Behjou, F. K. and Moameri, M., 2018. The effect of different grazing intensities on aerial biomass, underground biomass of two species including Agropyron libanoticum and Festuca ovina in southeastern rangelands of Sabalan Mountain. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 25 (3): 496-505.

-  Harper, K. T. and Marble, J. R., 1988. A role for non-vascular plants in mamgement of arid and semi arid rangelands. In Tuller, P. T. (Ed). Vegetation science application for rangelands analyses and management. Marinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk, Ameserdam, The Netherlands: 135-169.

-  Hill, M., 1973. Diversity and evenness: A unifying notation and its consequences. Journal of Ecology, 54: 427-432.

-  Jefferis, D. L. and Klopatek, J. M., 1987. Effects of grazing on the vegetation of blackbrush association. Journal of Range Management, 40: 390-392.

-  Kaltenecker, J. and Wicklow-Howard, M., 1994. Microbiotic soil crusts in sagebrush habitats of southern Idaho. Bois State University, Bois, Idaho, 48p.

-  Kaltenecker, J., 1997. The recovery of microbiotic crusts following post-fire rehabitation on rangelands of the western Snake River Plain. Ph.D. Dissertation. Boise State University, Boise, Idaho, USA, 198p.

-  Kappen, L. and Lange, O. L., 1972. Die Kalteresistenz einier Makrolichen. Journal of Flora, 101: 1-29.

-  Karimi, M., 1987. Climatology study of Semirom region. Jihad of Isfahan, 158p.

-  Lang, O. L., 1953. Hitz-Und Trockenresistens der Flechten in Beziehung zu iher Verbreitung. Journal of Flora, 140: 39-97.

-  Marshal, J. K., 1972. Principle of soil erosion and its prevention, In: The use of trees and shrubs in the dry country of Australia. Forestry and Timber Bureau. Canberra, Australia.

-  McCune, B. and Rosentreter, R., 1995. Field key to soil lichen of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon State University and USDI Bureau of Land Management, OR, USA.

-  Moradi, E. and Hesmati, G. H., 2013. Comparing the species diversity, richness and evenness in rangelands sites with various forage capacities, Case study: Semirom semi-arid rangelands. Journal of Rangeland, 7: 168-177.

-  Moradi, E., 2007. Seasonal variation of Total Non-structural Carbohydrate (TNC) levels in "Bromus tomentellus" on moderately and heavy grazed sites in Semirom. Isfahan University of tech. 31p.

-  Moradi, E., 2016. Ecological resilience of semi-arid mountain rangelands to livestock grazing (Case study: Semirom rangelands). Ph.D thesis in Rangeland Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 312p.

-  Page, M., 1977. Vegetaion dynamics in mulgalands: a currawinya National Park case study. PhD. Thesis University of Queensland, Gatton College, Australia, 317p.

-  Pellent, M., Shaver, P., Pyke, D. A. and Herrick, J. E., 2000. Interpreting indicators of rangeland health, Technical Reference 17346, USDA, Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Denver, Colorado.

-  Rosentreter, R., 1994. Displacement of rare plants by exotic grasses. In Monsen, S.B. and Kitchen, S.G. (Eds.). Proceeding-ecology and management of annual rangelands. General Tecnical Report INT-GTR-313. USDA Forest Service. Intermountain Research Station. Ogden, UT, USA: 170-175.

-  Scarlett, N., 1994. Soil crusts, germination and weeds-issues to consider. Journal of Victorion Naturalist, 111: 125-130.

-  Scherer, S., Ernst, A., Chen, T. W. and Boger, P., 1984. Rewetting of drought resistant blu-green algae: Time courses of water uptake and reappearance of respiration, photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. Journal of Oecologia, 62: 418-423.

-  Steinburger, Y., 1991. Biology of arid region soils-faunal components. In Skujins, J. (Ed.). Semi-arid lands and deserts: Soil resource and reclamation. Mrcel Dekker, New York: 173-192.

Tang, Z., Fang, J., Chi, X., Feng, J., Liu, Y., Shen, Z., Wang, X., Wang, Z., Wu, X., Zheng, C. and Kevin, J., 2012. Latitudinal gradients in mountain forests of China. Journal of Ecography, 35: 1083-1091.

-  Tavili, A., 2004. Investigating the effect of some lichen species on soil and plants charecteristics in rangelands (Case study: GhareGhir rangelands, Golestan province). Ph.D. Dissertation in Rangeland Science, Tehran University, 189p.

-  Tongway, D. J. and Hindly, N. L., 2000. Ecosystem function analysis of rangeland monitoring data: Rangelands Audit project 1.1. National land and water resources audit, Canbera, 35p.

-  Tongway, D., 1994. Rangeland soil condition assessment (manual). CSIRO, Division of wildlife and ecology. Canberra, Ausralia.

-  Van de Koppel, J., Rietkerk, M. and Weissing, F. J., 1997. Catastrophic vegetation shifts and soil degradation in terrestrial grazing systems. Journal of Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 12: 352-356.

-  Walker, B. H. and Meyers, J. A. 2004. Thresholds in ecological and social ecological systems: A developing data base. Journal of Ecology and Society, 9: 3-13.

-  West, N. E., 1990. Structure and function of microphytic soil crust in wild life esosystem of arid to semi-arid regions. Journal of Advanced in Ecological Research, 20: 179-223.

-  Whittaker, R. H., 1972. Evolution and measurement of speciesdiversity. Journal of Taxon, 21: 213-251.

Yeates, G. W., 1979. Soil nematodes in terrestrial ecosystems. Journal of Nematology, 11: 213-229.