تحلیل نقش و ساختار اجتماعی در ابتکارات محلی سازگار مدیریت منابع آب دشت گزیر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی آبخیزداری، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه احیاء مناطق خشک و کوهستانی، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه احیاء مناطق خشک و کوهستانی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

4 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد رشته همزیستی با بیابان، مرکز تحقیقات بیابان، تهران، ایران

چکیده

ساختار اجتماعی منابع آب یکی از ابعاد پتانسیل فرهنگی در جوامع روستایی ایران محسوب می‌شود که در مدیریت عرفی منابع آب نقش قابل‌توجهی دارد. هدف اصلی این پژوهش، شناخت ساختار اجتماعی مرتبط با مدیریت منابع آب در دشت گزیر از توابع شهرستان بندرلنگه است. در پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از روش‌های مردم‌شناسی، مشاهده مستقیم و مشارکتی و مصاحبه با بهره­برداران منابع آب مطلع روستای گزیر، اطلاعات موردنیاز جمع‌آوری گردید. محدودیت­های اقتصادی، اجتماعی، محیطی، به‌ویژه منابع آب و همچنین نیازهای مشترک مردم بومی دشت گزیر منجر به تشکیل ساختار اجتماعی در راستای سازگاری با کم­آبی شده است و کشاورزان به‌واسطه ساختارهای اجتماعی و همچنین سازه­های فیزیکی متناسب با نیازشان به بهره­برداری جمعی منابع آب پرداخته­اند. مهم ترین نقش های اجتماعی در حال حاضر پیرامون مدیریت منابع آب در این دشت عبارتند از؛ مالک، کدخدا، خَرّاس، گابون، غارسان و بَزِیاران. یاریگری­ها، باورها، ارزش­ها و هنجارها بخش دیگری از پتانسیل فرهنگی دشت گزیر جهت سازگاری با شرایط طبیعت است که توسط کشاورزان و در قالب ساختار اجتماعی ایجادشده است؛ در واقع خودسازماندهی و وجود یاریگری در مدیریت آب یکی از اصول اساسی در دشت گزیر محسوب می‌شود. به طور کلی می‌توان بیان نمود؛ باوجود حذف قشر بزرگ مالکان بعد از اصلاحات ارضی، همکاری خودجوش و یاریگری در مدیریت آب در قالب ساختار اجتماعی یکی از اصول اساسی در دشت گزیر محسوب می‌شود. بنابراین می­توان استدلال نمود بهره جستن از تجارب مردم بومی این دشت در قالب ساختار اجتماعی، به‌عنوان عاملان اصلی مدیریت منابع آب، به دلیل سازگاری با شرایط اکولوژیک منطقه، امروزه یکی از روش‌های توسعه پایدار به شمار می­رود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Analysis of Role and Social Structure in adapted Local innovations for water resources management Gezir Plain

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Barzgar 1
  • Mehdi Ghorbani 2
  • Alireza Moghadamnia 3
  • Abolvahed Hoseini Gezir 4
1 Former M.Sc. in department of reclamation of arid and mountainous regions, faculty of natural resource, university of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Associate Department of reclamation of arid and mountainous regions, Faculty of natural resource, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Associate Department of reclamation of arid and mountainous regions, Faculty of natural resource, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 Former M.Sc. in International Desert Research Center, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The social structure of water resources is one of the cultural potential dimensions of rural communities in Iran which plays a significant role in conventional management of water resources. The main objective of this research is to identify social structure associated with water resources management in the Gezir plain of Bandar lengeh. In the present study, Anthropology methods, direct and participatory observation and interviews with water resource users of Gazir village were collected. Economic, social, environmental constraints, especially water resources, as well as the common needs of indigenous people in the Gazir plain have led to formation of a social structure indirect to adapt the water scarcity, and farmers have exploited the water resources collectively through social structures as well as physical structures commensurate with their needs. The most important social roles currently affect the management of water resources in the plain are: Landowner, Kadkhoda, kharras,Gaboun, Gharises and Bazeyare Aids, beliefs, values and norms are another part of cultural potential of the plain of Gezir to adapt to the conditions of nature which has been created by farmers in the context of the social structure. In fact, self-organization and existence of aids in water management is one of the basic principles in the Gezir plain. Generally speaking, despite the elimination of large landowners after land reform, spontaneous co-operation and assistance in water management in form of social structure is one of the basic principles in the plain. Nowadays, therefore, it can be argued that using experiences of indigenous peoples of the plain in social structure, as the main agents of water resources management, due to their adaptation to the ecological conditions of the region, it is the most appropriate methods of sustainable development.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Social structure
  • Gharis and Bazeyar
  • social role
  • cooperation
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