تاثیر تغییر کاربری مراتع بر ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک با تاکید بر پایداری خاکدانه‌ها (مطالعه موردی: مراتع صلوات آباد سنندج)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه مرتعداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه مرتعداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی طبیعت، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه کردستان، ایران

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی اثر تبدیل مرتع به کاربری­های زراعی و باغی بر ویژگی‌های مهم خاکی از جمله پایداری خاکدانه در حوضه صلوات آباد در شرق سنندج انجام شد. برای این منظور، همزمان با رشد غالب گیاهان با پیمایش صحرایی چهار کاربری شامل 1) مرتع 2) باغ 3) نخودزار 4) گندم­زار به­عنوان محدوده مطالعاتی انتخاب شدند و 42 نمونه خاک به­صورت تصادفی-سیستماتیک برداشت گردید. سپس فاکتورهای فیزیکی-شیمیایی خاک شامل پایداری خاکدانه، نیتروژن کل، کربن کل و کربن آلی ذره­ای هر نمونه در آزمایشگاه اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه واریانس داده‌ها نشان داد که در اثر تبدیل مرتع به سه کاربری باغ، نخودزار و گندم­زار، پایداری خاکدانه، کربن آلی ذره­ای در سطح 5 درصد، کربن آلی کل و نیتروژن کل در هر سه کاربری در سطح 1 درصد به­طور معنی­داری کاهش یافتند. در کاربری­های باغ، نخود و گندم، پایداری خاکدانه به‌ترتیب 51/35، 94/25 و 56/19 درصد، کربن آلی ذره‌ای به‌ترتیب 5/62، 16/79 و 75 درصد، کربن آلی کل به‌ترتیب 63/23، 50 و 09/49 درصد و نیتروژن کل به ترتیب 25/31، 5/62 و 75 درصد کاهش نشان داد. با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق تبدیل مراتع به هر کدام از کاربری­های زراعی و باغی غیرقابل قبول است اما در صورت اجبار به تبدیل، کاربری باغ پیشنهاد می­گردد زیرا باغ اثرات منفی کمتری نسبت به گندم­زار و نخودزار برروی فاکتورهای کیفی خاک دارد. همچنین در تبدیل کاربری مرتع به زراعی تاکید می­گردد در حد امکان جهت حفظ تعادل بین ورود و خروج زی‌توده ورودی به بستر خاک، از خروج یا آتش‌سوزی باقیمانده کاه و کلش، یا چرای دام پس از برداشت محصول جلوگیری شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Rangeland Use Change on Soil Physico-Chemical Characteristics with Emphasizing on Soil Aggregates Stability (Case Study: Salvatabad Rangeland, Sanandaj)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Leila Zandi 1
  • Reza Erfanzadeh 2
  • Hamed Joneidi Jafari 3
1 MSc. Student, Rangeland Management Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran
2 Associate Prof., Rangeland Management Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran
3 Associate Prof. Nature Engineering Department, Kurdestan University, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of conversion of rangeland into agricultural and horticultural land uses on important soil properties including aggregate stability in Salavatabad watershed in Eastern Sanandaj. For this purpose, simultaneously with the predominant growth of plants, four land uses including 1) rangeland 2) orchard 3) chickpea field 4) wheat field were selected as the study area and 42 soil samples were random-systematically collected. Then soil physico-chemical properties including aggregate stability, total nitrogen, total carbon and particulate organic carbon of each sample were measured in the laboratory. One-way ANOVA of the data showed that due to the conversion of rangeland into three uses of orchard, chickpea and wheat fields, aggregate stability, particulate organic carbon at the level of 5%, total organic carbon and total nitrogen in all three uses at the level 1% decreased significantly. As the aggregate stability in orchard, chickpeas and wheat 35.51, 25.94 and 19.56% respectively, particulate organic carbon in orchard, chickpeas and wheat 62.5%, 79.16 and 75%, respectively, total organic carbon in orchard, chickpea and wheat use decreased by 23.63%, 50% and 49.09%, respectively, and total nitrogen decreased by 31.25% in orchard, 62.5% in chickpea use and 75% in wheat use. According to the results of this study, the conversion of rangelands to any of the agricultural and horticultural uses is unacceptable, but in case of forced conversion, the use of the orchard is recommended because the orchard has less negative effects on soil quality factors than wheat and chickpeas. It is also emphasized in converting rangeland use to cropland, as much as possible to maintain the balance between the input and output of the plant residual into the soil bed, it should be prevented the exit or fire of remaining straw, or grazing livestock after harvest.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Land use changes
  • Aggregate stability
  • Rangeland
  • Organic carbon
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