تغییرپذیری برخی خصوصیات شیمیایی خاک در شرایط مختلف مدیریتی مرتع

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه جنگلداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و مرکز پژوهش و توسعه جنگلداری زاگرس شمالی دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مرتع‌داری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران

چکیده

     مدیریت‌های مختلف مراتع ازجمله قرق و اصلاح، می‌تواند شرایط مناسبی را برای احیای مرتع ایجاد کند. هدف از انجام این پژوهش، بررسی اثر سه مدیریت مختلف قرق، اصلاحی و تحت چرا در مراتع استان کردستان و تأثیر آنها برای برخی خصوصیات خاک است. برای انجام این تحقیق، 25 پلات یک در یک مترمربعی، به‌طور تصادفی-‌سیستماتیک در امتداد دو ترانسکت (240 متر، 120 متر در هر دو جهت عمود و در راستای شیب) در هر منطقه اجرا و در مرکز هر پلات یک نمونه خاک از عمق 15-0 سانتی‌متر به همراه درصد لاشبرگ و پوشش گیاهی، درصد خاک لخت و درصد سنگریزه برداشت شد. بنابراین در کل 75 نمونه خاک از سه منطقه برداشت گردید. بعد از خشک کردن نمونه‌های خاک، برخی پارامترهای شیمیایی خاک در آزمایشگاه تجزیه شد. برای تحلیل داده‌ها از تجزیه واریانس یکطرفه و برای بررسی ارتباط بین داده‌ها از آزمون همبستگی پیرسون استفاده گردید. نتایج حاصل نشان داد که تمامی پارامترهای مورد بررسی تفاوت معنی‌داری را نسبت به هم داشتند، به‌طوری‌که میزان کربن، نیتروژن، نسبت C/N، فسفر و پتاسیم در منطقه اصلاحی به‌ترتیب با مقادیر %94/1، %205/0، 48/9، mg/kg288 و mg/kg 129 دارای بیشترین مقدار و در منطقه تحت چرا با مقادیر %25/1، %179/0، 7، mg/kg170 و mg/kg 75 دارای کمترین میزان بود. در حالی که میزان اسیدیته (27/8) و هدایت الکتریکی (174 میکروزیمنس بر سانتی‌متر) در منطقه تحت چرا افزایش یافت. همچنین درصد پوشش گیاهی ارتباط مثبت معنی‌داری با تمامی عناصر بررسی شده خاک (به‌جز اسیدیته و هدایت الکتریکی) داشت. درصد خاک لخت و سنگریزه نیز ارتباط منفی معنی‌داری با عناصر کربن، نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم از خود نشان دادند. در نهایت می‌توان گفت مدیریت قرق و عملیات اصلاحی توانسته است اثرهای مثبت معنی‌داری بر عناصر ضروری گیاه در خاک بگذارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Variability of some chemical soil properties under different rangelands management

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kyumars Mohammadi-Samani 1
  • Hamed Joneidi Jafari 2
  • Parya Moradi 3
1 Assistant Professor, Dept. of Forestry, The Center for Research and Development of Northern Zagros Forestry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, I. R. Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Range and Watershed Management, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, I. R. Iran
3 M.Sc.Student of Range Management, Department of Range and Watershed Management, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, I. R. Iran.
چکیده [English]

Different rangeland management measures such as fencing and improvement can provide the potential for their restoration. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a range of rangeland management measures including fencing, remediation, and grazing on some soil properties in the rangelands of Kurdistan province. We established 25 plots of 1×1 m2 each along two transects with 240 m length (120 m perpendicular to the slope and 120 m parallel to the slope). At each plot center, soil samples (0-15 cm depth) were taken, together with other attributes comprising litter, vegetation, bare soil, and gravel percentages. This resulted in 75 soil samples from three study areas. Furthermore, some chemical soil properties were analyzed in the laboratory after drying and preparing the soil samples. We used one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to analyze the data, as well as Pearson correlation to study the relationship between the parameters. Results revealed statistically significant differences in some soil properties amongst the study areas. In addition, the amount of soil carbon (1.94%), nitrogen (0.205%), C/N ratio (9.48), phosphorus (288mg/kg) and potassium (129 mg/kg) showed the highest rates in the improvement area, whereas all those parameters including carbon (1.25%), nitrogen (0.179%), C/N ratio (7), phosphorus (170mg/kg) and potassium (75 mg/kg) showed the lowest rate across the grazing rangeland. Further, pH (8.27) and EC (174 µs/cm) showed the highest levels in the grazing area. The results of the Pearson correlation showed that the percentage of vegetation was significantly and positively related to all soil properties except pH and Ec. In addition, bare soil and gravel percentages indicated a significant negative relationship with soil carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. We conclude that fencing and rangeland remediation treatments can enable significant positive effects on soil nutrients that are essential for plants.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Essential nutrients for plants
  • Grazed pastures
  • Fencing
  • Remediation
  • Rangeland
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