تعیین شاخص‌های اقتصادی، اجتماعی و اکولوژیکی مدل زنبورداری در مراتع (منطقه مورد مطالعه: شهرستان سرایان خراسان جنوبی)

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای علوم مرتع، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم تحقیقات تهران، ایران

2 استاد، گروه احیای مناطق خشک و کوهستانی، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 دانشیار، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم تحقیقات تهران، ایران

4 استادیار، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

10.22092/ijrdr.2022.127214

چکیده

     این تحقیق با هدف شناسایی شاخص‌های اقتصادی، اجتماعی و اکولوژیکی مؤثر بر مدل زنبورداری در مراتع، در منطقه سرایان استان خراسان جنوبی انجام شد. این تحقیق از لحاظ هدف کاربردی، از نظر روش توصیفی – تحلیلی و از لحاظ جمع‌آوری داده‌ها نیز دارای ماهیت کمی است. جامعه آماری تحقیق شامل کلیه مرتع‌داران منطقه سرایان بوده که با استفاده از جدول کرجسی و مورگان، تعداد 180 مرتع‌دار به روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی انتخاب شد. ابزار گردآوری داده‌ها و اطلاعات مورد نظر، پرسش‌نامه محقق‌ساخته بود که با هدف بررسی میزان تمایل مرتع‌داران به زنبورداری در مرتع و تعیین شاخص‌های اصلی عدم استقبال آنان از این نوع معیشت طراحی شده و با استفاده از روش مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته، تکمیل و با نرم‌افزار SPSS مورد تجزیه‌وتحلیل قرار گرفت. پایایی پرسش‌نامه با استفاده از آزمون آلفای کرونباخ 86/0 به‌دست آمد. نتایج نشان داد در 7/61 درصد از مرتع‌داران، میزان تمایل به زنبورداری، زیاد و خیلی زیاد گزارش شده است. به‌طوری‌که بین سن (در سطح 99 درصد)، سطح تحصیلات (در سطح 99 درصد) و درصد وابستگی به مرتع (در سطح 95 درصد) با تمایل به زنبورداری در مرتع همبستگی معنی‌داری وجود دارد. هر چند این همبستگی در مورد سن و درصد وابستگی به مرتع به صورت منفی بوده است. نتایج رتبه‌بندی شاخص‌های مهم عدم استقبال مرتع‌داران از زنبورداری نیز نشان داد که شاخص‌های دانش، آگاهی و مهارت ناکافی، امنیت کندوها در مرتع، روحیه کم خطرپذیری و مالکیت مرتع مهمترین شاخص‌های اجتماعی، هزینه تأمین نهاده، انتقال و نگهداری کندوها در مرتع مهمترین شاخص اقتصادی و شاخص‌های کوتاهی دوره گل‌دهی گیاهان مرتعی، پوشش گیاهی ضعیف،‌ فقدان منابع آب کافی و خطر‌ات محیطی (خشکسالی،‌ طوفان، آفات و بیماری‌ها) مهمترین شاخص‌های اکولوژیکی از دیدگاه مرتع‌داران بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determining the economic-social and ecological indicators for beekeeping model in rangelands (case study: Sarayan city-South Khorasan province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amir Masoud Pouyafar 1
  • Hosein Arzani 2
  • Seyed Akbar Javadi 3
  • Asghar Tahmasebi 4
1 Ph.D. student, Range Management Sciences, Tehran Science & Technology unit, Azad University, Iran
2 Professor, Natural Resources Faculty, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Tehran university, Iran
3 Associate professor, Natural Resources Faculty, Tehran Science & Technology unit, Azad University, Iran
4 Assistant professor, Faculty of Geography, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study aimed to identify the economic, social, and ecological indicators affecting the beekeeping model in rangelands in the Sarayan region of South Khorasan province. This research is applied in terms of purpose, descriptive-analytical method, and quantitative in terms of data collection. The statistical population of the study included all ranchers in the Sarayan region. Using Krejcie and Morgan's table, 180 ranchers were selected by random sampling method. The data collection tool and information were a researcher-made questionnaire designed to assess the tendency of pastoralists to beekeeping in the rangeland and determine the main indicators of their unwelcome to this type of livelihood using a semi-structured interview method. The reliability of the questionnaire was 0.86 using Cronbach's alpha test. The results showed that in 61.7% of ranchers, the tendency to beekeeping was reported to be high and very high. So that there is a significant correlation between age (at 99% level), level of education (at 99% level), and percentage of rangeland dependence (at 95% level) with a tendency to beekeeping in rangeland. However, this correlation was negative for age and percentage of rangeland dependence. The results of ranking the important indicators of ranchers' reluctance to beekeeping also showed the indicators of knowledge, insufficient knowledge and skills, the safety of hives in the rangeland, low risk-taking spirit, and rangeland ownership as the most important social indicators, cost of providing, transferring and maintaining hives in the rangeland. The most important economic indicators and short indicators of the rangeland flowering period, poor vegetation, lack of sufficient water resources, and environmental risks (drought, storms, pests, and diseases) were considered the ecological indicators from the perspective of rangers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Competence
  • socio-economic criteria
  • range -holders
  • beekeeping
  • Sarayan
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