شناسایی مناطق برداشت رسوب در کانون فرسایش بادی غرب استان تهران (مطالعه موردی: شهرستان ملارد)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکترای بیابان‌زدایی، گروه احیای مناطق خشک و کوهستانی، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

2 استاد، گروه احیای مناطق خشک و کوهستانی، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه احیای مناطق خشک و کوهستانی، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

10.22092/ijrdr.2022.127219

چکیده

     فرسایش بادی و توفان‌های گردوغبار یکی از بلایای طبیعی است که مناطق خشک و بیابانی ایران مرکزی به صورت روزافزون با آن مواجه است. همچنین مدیریت نادرست در عرصه منابع طبیعی نیز بر افزایش این پدیده تأثیر زیادی داشته است. یکی از اصول اولیه کنترل و مبارزه با فرسایش بادی، شناخت مناطق برداشت رسوبات است. هدف این پژوهش شناسایی مناطق برداشت رسوبات بادی، در رخساره‌های منطقه ملارد در غرب استان تهران است. براساس نقشه‌های توپوگرافی، تصاویر ماهواره‌ای، نقشه زمین‌شناسی و همچنین بازدیدهای میدانی نقشه رخساره ژئومورفولوژیکی منطقه تهیه گردید، سپس نمونه‌برداری انجام شد و نهایتاً در محیط GIS مورد تجزیه‌وتحلیل قرار گرفت. تفسیر داده‌های بادسنجی با استفاده از بررسی گلباد و گل‌توفان نشان داد که جهت باد غالب و فرساینده از سمت شمال‌غربی است. نتایج حاصل از گلماسه ایستگاه‌های منطقه مورد مطالعه نشان‌دهنده این است که تغییرپذیری جهت باد شامل کم تا زیاد است و ایستگاه قزوین (نزدیک‌ترین ایستگاه به کانون‌های بحرانی) دارای شدت تغییرپذیری زیاد و شامل بادهای چند جهته مرکب با زاویه تند بوده است. 83 نمونه از رخساره‌های مختلف منطقه مورد مطالعه به روش ASTM (الک خشک) دانه‌بندی شده است. نتایج دانه‌بندی بیانگر محلی بودن منشأ برداشت است. نقشه اولویت‌بندی کانون‌های بحرانی منطقه نشان داد که 4/16 درصد از مساحت منطقه جزء شدت کم، 4/3 درصد شدت متوسط و 3 درصد شدت زیاد را به خود اختصاص داده است. در نهایت مشخص شد که دق رسی شور و فاقد پوشش گیاهی یا با پوشش گیاهی اندک شورپسندها در دشت‌سر پوشیده، بیشترین درصد ذرات حساس به فرسایش بادی را دربر گرفته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification of sediment harvesting areas in west wind erosion center of Tehran Province (Case Study: Malard County)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahin Hanifapour 1
  • Gholamreza Zehtabian 2
  • Hasan Ahmadi 2
  • Aliakbar Nazari Samani 3
  • Hassan Khosravi 3
1 Ph.D. in Combating Desertification, Department of Arid and Mountainous Regions Reclamation, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Arid and Mountainous Regions Reclamation, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Arid and Mountainous Regions Reclamation, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

      Wind erosion and dust storms are one of the natural disasters that are increasingly facing the arid and desert areas of central Iran. Improper management in natural resources has also had a high impact on this phenomenon. One of the basic principles of controlling and combating wind erosion is to know the areas of sediment harvesting. The purpose of this study is to identify the areas of wind sediment harvesting in the facies of the Mallard region in the west of Tehran province. Based on topographic maps, satellite imagery, geological map, and field surveys, the geomorphologic facies map was prepared and then the sampling was done and analyzed in a GIS environment. The interpretation of the anemometer data using Windrose & Stormrose showed the wind direction of the dominant and eroding from the northwest. The results obtained from the study's Sandrose indicated that variation in wind direction is low to high, and Qazvin station (the station closest to the critical centers) had high variability and included multi-directional winds with sharp angles. The 83 samples of different facies of the study area are graded by the ASTM (Dry Sieve) method. The granulation results indicate the local origin of the harvest. The prioritization map of the critical centers of the region showed that 16.4% of the area is low intensity, 3.4% medium intensity, and 3% high intensity. Finally, it was found that saline clay with no vegetation cover or with little vegetation covered with saline in the plain had the highest percentage of particles sensitive to wind erosion.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Wind erosion
  • harvest areas
  • grading
  • Malard
  • critical point
  • Abbasi, M., Feiznia, S., Ahmadi, H. and Kazmei, Y., 2010. Study of sand dunes origin by geochemical trades of eolian sediment in Niatak. Journal of Arid Biom, 1(1): 33-44 (in Persian).
  • Ahmadi, H., 2012. Applied Geomorphology, Vol. 2, Tehran University Press. 760 p (in Persian).
  • Ahmadi, H. and Mesbahzadeh, T., 2011. Comparison of sand drifts potential estimating using momentum method and Fryberger velocity classes’ method (Case study: Jask and Kerman). Journal of Water and Soil, 25(1): 11-18.
  • Akbari-Mahdiabad, M., 2020. Aeolian sediment and dust storm fingerprinting in Bahadoran village, Yazd. M.Sc. thesis, Factualy of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University,127p (in Persian) .
  • AlmawFentaab, A., Tsunekawaa, A., Haregeweync, N., Poesend, J., Tsuboa, M., Borrellie, P., Panagosf, P., Vanmaerckeg, M., Broeckxd, J., Yasudaa, H., Kawaia, T. and Kurosakia, Y., 2020. Land susceptibility to water and wind erosion risks in the East Africa region. Science of The Total Environment, 703(10): 135016.
  • Babadi Akashi, Z, 2016. Surveying the wind process and identifying the sand resources (case study: sand formation forms in southern Semnan). M.Sc. thesis, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Tehran. 105 p (in Persian).
  • Baumgertel, A., Luki´c, S., Belanovi´c Simi´c, S. and Kadovi´c, R., 2019. Identifying areas sensitive to wind erosion, A CaseStudy of the AP Vojvodina (Serbia). Applied Sciences, 9(23):5601.
  • Biabani, L., Khosravi, H., Nazari Samani, A. and Hanifepour, M., 2017. Study of the ability to carry sand in the eastern margin of Lake Urmia, The fourth national conference on wind erosion and dust storms, Yazd Iran (in Persian).
  • Boroughani, M., Pourhashemi, S., Zarei, M.and Aliabadi, K., 2019. Spatial modelingof sensitivity of dust source area to its release in Eastern Iran using the BRT enhanced tree Model. Journal of Arid Regions, 9(35): 14-28 (in Persian).
  • Boroughani, M., 2020, Identification of dust collection centers in Sistan watershed and determination of their characteristics. Iranian. Journal of Range and Desert Research, 27(3): 617-631 (in Persian).
  • Borrelli, P., Ballabio, C., Panagos, P., and Montanarella, L., 2014 Wind Erosion Susceptibility of European Soils. Geoderma, 232: 471– 478.
  • Bullock, M.S., Larney, F.J., Izaurralde, R. and Feny, Y., 2001. Overwinter change in wind erodibility of clay loam soils in Southern Alberta. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 65(2): 423-430.
  • Chepil, W. S., 1954. Factors that influence clod structure and erodiblity of soil by wind: III. Calcium carbonate and decomposed organic matter. Soil Science, 77: 473-480.
  • Dong, Z., Liu, X., and Wang, X., 2002. Aerodynamic roughness of gravel surfaces. Geomorphology, 43: 17-31.
  • Ekhtesasi, M., Ahmadi, H., Baghestani Meybodi, N., Khalili, A. and Feiznia, S., 1996. The Formation of Sandy Hills of Yazd Plain of Ardakan. Institute of Forestry and Rangelands, 260 p. (in Persian).
  • Folk, R.L., 1971. Longitudinal dunes of the northwestern edge of the Simposon Desert, Northern Territory, Autralia.1. Geomorphology and grain sizerelationships. Sedimenology, 16:5-54.
  • Fryberger, S.G. and Dean. G., 1979. Dune form Sand Wind regime. United States Geological Survey. In: Professional Paper, 137-140 p.
  • Funk, R. and Riksen, M., 2007. Measures to reduce wind erosion and related dust emissions, Conference paper, January.
  • Ghoochani, H., Yaghini, F. and Karimi, N., 2012. Effects of wind erosion on arid and semi-arid regions. The first national convention of the desert, 147 p.
  • Golbabaei, H., Khalilpour, A. and Tahmasbi Birgani, A., 2004. Identification of critical wind erosion centers in Tehran Province. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 11(3):274-255 (in Persian).
  • , M., 2013. The Effect of Periodic Agricultural Activities on Wind Erosion (Case Study: Damghan), M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, 233 p.
  • Katra, I., 2020. Soil Erosion by Wind and Dust Emission in Semi-Arid Soils Due to Agricultural Activities, Agronomy, 10(1): 89-101.
  • Lee, J., Baddock, M., Mbuh, M.and Gill, T., 2012. Geomorphic and land cover characteristics of aeolian dust sources in West Texas and eastern New Mexico, USA. Journal of Aeolian Research, 3(4): 459-466.
  • Li, F.R., Zhao, L.Y., Zhang, H., Zhang, T.H. and Shirato, Y., 2004. Wind erosion and airborne dust deposition in farmland during spring in the Horqin sandy land of eastern Inner Mongolia, China. Soil Tillage Research. 75: 121-130.
  • Macias, C., Maritza, A., Arriaga, G. E. and Sanchez-Cohen, I., 2020. Potential of wind erosion and dust emission in an arid zone of northern Mexico: A simple assessment method. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo, 44: 1-5.
  • Maghsoudi, M., Rahmati, M. and Ehtashami-Pour, K.H., 2012. Relationship between the diameter of sand particles and the frequency of wind speeds in the Hojat-Abad Rig, the first national conference on deserts (science, technology and development), University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran (in Persian).
  • Memarian, H., 2005. Origin of wind sediments in Rafsanjan region. Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 58(3): 542-531(in Persian)
  • Mesbahzadeh, T., Ayazi, Z. and Soleimani Sardou, F., 2018. Evaluation of morphoscopy and granulation of wind sediments (Case study: Aran Kashan), Range and Watershed Management, Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 71(3): 787-795 (in Persian).
  • Mez˝osi, G., Blanka, V., Bata, T., Kovács, F., and Meyer, B., 2015. Estimation of regional differences in wind erosion sensitivity in Hungary, Nat. Hazards Earth System Science, 15: 97–107.
  • Michael, C., Duniway,, Pfennigwerth, Stephen, E., Travis, W., Nauman, J. and Nichole N., 2019. Wind erosion and dust from US drylands: a review of causes, consequences, and solutions in a changing world. Ecospher, 10(3): 1-12.
  • Miller, M.E., Bowker, M.A., Reynolds, R.L.and Goldstein, H.L., 2012. Post-fire land treatments and wind erosion lessons from the Milford Flat Fire, UT, USA. Journal of Aeolian Research, 7(4): 29–44.
  • Mohammadi, A., 2010. Geology and Geochemistry of Jazmourian Play Plants, 1(1): 68-79 (in Persian).
  • Mousavi Harami, R., 2012. Sedimentology, Astan Qods Razavi Publications,476p (in Persian).
  • Murillo, J.M., Moreno, E., Giron, I.F. and Oblitas, M.I., 2004. Conservation tillage: long term effect on soil and crops under rained conditions in south-west Spain (Western Andalusia). Spanish Journal of Agricaltural Resources 2(1):35-43.
  • Pourhashemi, S., Boroughani, M., Amirahmadi, A., Zanganeh Asadi, M.A.and Salhi, M., 2019. Prioritizing dust harvesting areas using statistical models (Case Study: Khorasan Razavi). Rangeland and Watershed Management, 72(2): 343-358. (in Persian)
  • Puget, P., Chenu, C. and Balesdent, J., 2000. Dynamics of soil organic matter gassociated with particle-size fractions of water-stable aggregates. European Journal of Soil Science, 51: 595-605.
  • Qiang, M., Chen, F., Zhou, A., Xiao, S., Zhang, J., and Wang, Z., 2007. Impacts of wind velocity on sand dust deposition during dust storm as inferred from a series of observations in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Powder Technology, 175: 82-89.
  • Qing, H., XingHua, Y., Mamtimin, A., ShiHao, T., 2011. Impact factors of soil wind erosion in the
    center of Taklimakan Desert. Journal of arid land, 3(1): 9−14.
  • Ranjbar, H., Bazgir, M., Namdar Khojasteh, D. and Rostami Nia, M., 2019. Identification of dust sources in Ilam province. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 26(3): 675-688 (In Persian).
  • Rashki, A., Kaskaoutis, D.G., Francois, P., Kosmopoulos, P.G. and Legrand, M., 2015. Dust-storm dynamics over Sistan region, Iran: Seasonality, transport characteristics and affected areas. Journal of Aeolian Research, 16: 35-48 (in Persian).
  • Roghani, R., 2018. Chemical properties of dust particles and determining the share of its productive resources in industrial, mineral and natural areas in the suburbs of Isfahan; Ph.D. Rthesis, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, 176 p (in Persian) .
  • Sanaye Ardakani, S., (2005). Investigation of Lesi sediments of Gapan and Nahkarkhoran valleys of Golestan province in terms of morphoscopic-chemical characteristics and sedimentation analysis. Journal of Agricultural Science, 3: 27-38. (in Persian)
  • Six, J., Guggenberger, G., Paustian, K., Haumaier, L., Elliott, E.T. and Zech, , 2001. Sources and composition of soil organic matter fractions between and within soil aggregates. European Journal of Soil Science, 52: 607-618.
  • Zhang, C.L., Zou. X.U, Gong, J.R., Liu, L. U. and Liu, Y. Z., 2004. Aerodynamic roughness of cultivated soil and water its influences on soil erosion by wind in a wind tunnel. Journal of Soil & Tillage Research, 75: 53-59.
  • Zheng, X., 2009. Mechanics of wind-blown sand movements, Springer- Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 309 p.
  • Zhu, C., Fan, X. and Zhongke, B., 2020. Spatiotemporal Pattern of Wind Erosion onUnprotected Topsoil Replacement Sites inMainland China, Sustainability, 12(8): 1-17.
  • Zobeck, T., Baddock, M., Pelt, R., Tatarko, J.and Acosts-Martinez, V., 2013. Soil property effects on wind erosion of organic soils. Aeolian Research, 10: 43-51.