تأثیر کاربری‌های جنگل، مرتع و کشاورزی و اقلیم بر ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک در استان ایلام

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد واحد ایلام، ایلام، ایران

2 استادیار گروه مهندسی آب و خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران

چکیده

اقلیم و کاربری اراضی، دو عامل مهم می‌باشند که بر خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک تأثیر زیادی دارند. این پژوهش به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر اقلیم و کاربری­ اراضی بر خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک در سال 1395 در استان ایلام انجام گرفت. پس از بررسی‌های اولیه، منطقه ایوان با اقلیمی نیمه‌‌مرطوب و گنجوان با اقلیمی نیمه‌خشک در استان ایلام انتخاب گردیدند. در هر منطقه، سه کاربری شامل جنگل، مرتع و کشاورزی در نظر گرفته شد. پس از بررسی­های میدانی در هر کاربری، پنج نمونه مرکب با سه تکرار از عمق­های سطحی (10-0 سانتی‌متری) و تحتانی (30-10 سانتی‌متری) خاک به‌صورت تصادفی برداشت گردید. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین مقدار آهک (85/47 درصد) و سیلت خاک (75/31 درصد) در اقلیم نیمه‌خشک گنجوان به‌دست آمد. خاک­های اقلیم نیمه‌مرطوب ایوان بیشترین مقدار رس و پتاسیم قابل جذب را دارا بود. بیشترین مقدار جرم مخصوص ظاهری (87/1 گرم بر سانتی‌متر مکعب) در اقلیم نیمه‌خشک گنجوان تحت تأثیر کاربری کشاورزی در عمق تحتانی خاک به‌دست آمد. کمترین مقدار جرم مخصوص ظاهری (08/1 گرم بر سانتی‌متر مکعب) در اقلیم نیمه‌مرطوب ایوان در عمق سطحی خاک تحت تأثیر کاربری جنگل مشاهده گردید. بیشترین میزان ماده آلی در کاربری جنگل در اقلیم نیمه‌مرطوب ایوان به‌دست آمد، که 85/42 درصد بیشتر از اقلیم نیمه‌خشک گنجوان بود. کاربری کشاورزی، کمترین میزان ماده آلی (37/4 درصد) را داشت. بیشترین مقدار نیتروژن (514/. درصد) و فسفر قابل جذب (04/35 میلی­گرم در کیلوگرم) در اقلیم نیمه‌مرطوب ایوان تحت کاربری جنگل به‌دست آمد. در منطقه نیمه‌مرطوب ایوان مقدار کلسیم و منیزیم محلول در خاک تحتانی (30-10 سانتی­متری) در مقایسه با خاک سطحی (10-0 سانتی­متری) بیشتر بود. به‌طور کلی با تغییر کاربری از جنگل به زمین زراعی در اقلیم‌های نیمه‌خشک گنجوان درصد رس، ماده آلی و غلظت عناصر نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم قابل جذب کاهش یافت. بنابراین، مدیریت صحیح کاربری اراضی در اقلیم‌های نیمه‌خشک برای حفظ مطلوب ویژگی­های خاک بسیار ضروری است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Impact of Forest, Rangeland and Agriculture Land Uses and Climate on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Ilam Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Karami 1
  • Masoud Bazgir 2
1 M.Sc. Graduate, Department of Soil Science, Islamic Azad Ilam University, Ilam, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Soil and Water Engineering, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran
چکیده [English]

Climate and land use are two important factors which are greatly influence on soil physical and chemical properties. This research was conducted to study the effects of climate and land use on physical and chemical properties of soil in Ilam province in 2016. After initial studies, Ivan area with semi-humid climate and Ganjavan with semi-arid climate in Ilam province were selected. In each region, three land uses including forest, rangeland and agricultural were considered. After field studies in each land use, five soil samples were taken from 0-10cm and 10-30cm depths and collected randomly. The results showed that the highest amount of soil lime (47.85%) and soil silt (31.75%) were obtained in semi-arid climate of Ganjvan. The soils of Ayvan as a semi-humid climate had the highest amount of clay and K available. The highest bulk density (1.87 g.cm-3) was obtained in semi-arid climate of Ganjavan under the effect of agricultural use at lower soil depth. The lowest amount of bulk density (1.08 g.cm-3) was observed in semi-humid climate of Ayvan in the soil surface depth under forest land use. The highest amount of organic matter was obtained in forest land use in semi-humid climate in Ayvan, (42.85 %) which was more than semi-arid climate of Ganjvan. Agricultural land use had the lowest amount of organic matter (4.37%). The highest amount of N (0.514%) and P (35.04 mg kg-1) concentrations were obtained in forest land use in the semi-humid climate of Ayvan. The amount of Ca and Mg concentration in subsoil solution (10-30cm) layer was higher than topsoil solution (0-10cm) layer in Ayvan. In general, by changing land use from forest to farm, the percentage of clay, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium available decreased in semi-arid climates of Ganjvan. Therefore, proper land use management in semiarid climates is essential for optimal preservation of soil properties.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • land use
  • nutrient elements
  • Organic Matter
  • soil texture
  • Weather
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