تغییرات در تنوع قارچ‌های میکوریزی آربسکولار و همزیستی آنها تحت تاثیر سطوح مختلف چرا در مراتع

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری بیابانزدایی، دانشکده کویر شناسی، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه جنگلداری مناطق خشک، دانشکده کویر شناسی، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران

3 دانشیار پژوهش، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

4 ستادیار، گروه مدیریت مناطق خشک، دانشکده کویر شناسی، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان ،ایران

5 گروه صنعت و محیط زیست، موسسه ملی مهندسی ژنتیک و بیوتکنولوژی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

با وجود  اهمیت قارچ­های میکوریزی آربسکولار (AMF) در رشد و استقرار گیاهان، تحقیقات درخصوص آنها در ایران هنوز در دوره ابتدایی خود است. این تحقیق به منظور بررسی تأثیر شدت چرا بر تنوع و جمعیت قارچ­های میکوریزی و رابطه­ی آن با جذب فسفر انجام شد. سه نوع مرتع با شدت چرای متفاوت شامل بدون چرا، چرای مدیریت شده و چرای سنگین درنظر گرفته شد. بعد از نمونه‏برداری از خاک اطراف ریزوسفر گونه‏های گیاهی غالب، نمونه‏های خاک به آزمایشگاه منتقل و مورد آنالیز قرار گرفتند. نتایج این تحقیق تفاوت‏های معنی­داری در تنوع گونه­ای AMF در سایت­های متفاوت نشان می­دهد که بیشترین درصد فراوانی مربوط به گونه­ی Septoglomusconstrictumشناسایی شده در منطقه تحت چرای سنگین (2/42%) است. همچنین چرا باعث تغییرات در درصد همزیستی میکوریزی شده است و دارای همبستگی مستقیمی بودند که همین می­تواند شاهدی بر کم شدن تنوع AMF شود چرا که با وجود اسپورهای درون خاک هر گونه­ گیاهی فقط می­تواند با گونه­های مشخصی از AMF رابطه برقرار کند. می­توان گفت چرای متناسب نمی­تواند عاملی منفی بر جمعیت و تنوع گونه­ای AMF باشد چرا که شاخص­های تنوع گونه‏ای در منطقه­ی تحت چرای مدیریت شده حالتی پایدار داشته است و می­توان با مدیریت مناسب سیستم چرایی و جلوگیری از چرای زودرس و بیش از حد از اثرات مخرب آن جلوگیری کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Variations in the diversity of the Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and its symbiosis as affected by different levels of grazing in rangelands

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elham Nouri 1
  • Alireza Moshki 2
  • Mohammad Matinizadeh 3
  • Ali Asghar Zolfaghari 4
  • Saeede Rajaei 5
1 PhD student of combat desertification, Faculty of Desert Studies, Semnan University, Iran
2 Assistant Prof., Department of Afforestation in Arid Lands, Faculty of Desert Studies, Semnan University, Iran
3 Associate Professor., Forest Research Division, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of management of Arid Lands, Faculty of Desert Studies, Semnan University Iran
5 Department of Industrial and Environmental Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Due to their various roles in the plants’ life, the Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) has been studied from various aspects. In Iran, study on this type of fungi is still at its infancy. Also, the variety of plant species and populations in Iran necessitates a more in-depth analysis compared to other countries in the world. The present study aimed at investigation of the effects of grazing intensity on the diversity and populations of these microorganisms that are symbiotic with the plants and also determining the factors affecting the soil. Three rangelands were considered with three different grazing pressures: no grazing pressure, managed grazing and heavy grazing. Following the sampling of the soil around the rhizosphere of the dominant plant species, the samples were transferred to the laboratory to be analyzed. The results of this study revealed the significant differences in the diversity of AMF species in different sites, and the highest frequency percentage was related to the Septoglomusconstrictum species identified in the heavy grazing region(42.2%).Also, grazing caused changes in the mycorrhizal symbiosis percentage and these factors had a direct correlation, and this could be an evidence of the reduced diversity of AMF, because despite of the existence of spores in the soil, each plant species can only correlate with specific species of AMF. It can be said that appropriate grazing cannot have a negative effect on the population and diversity of AMF, because species diversity indices in a managed grazing region are in a stable state; and, by the proper management of the grazing system and preventing the premature or excessive grazing, its harmful effects can be prevented.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • symbiosis
  • Microorganism
  • soil
  • Abundance
  • richness
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